Jurisdiction Project

Andaman & Nicobar

Overview:
Andaman & Nicobar is a Union Territory of India that consists of two island groups which lie east of the Indian mainland between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Its southernmost island is only 200 km (120 mi) from the northern tip of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The region's main economic industries are tourism, fishing and industrial financing, which are funded by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation. Agriculture is also a primary industry in the region and the government is looking at ways to further develop its exclusive economic fishing zone.

Territory:
An archipelago of 572 island (38 inhabited) located off the coast of India. The Andamans are separated from the Nicobars to the south by the Ten Degree Channel, which is 145 km (90 mi) wide. This Union Territory is spread over a distance nearly 800 km. from North to South. A hill range extends from Burma (Myanmar) to Indonesia. Land: 8249 sq. km (5155.6 sq. mi.). The largest island in the Andaman Group is Middle Andaman: 1536 sq. km (960 sq. mi.).The largest island in the Nicobar Group is Great Nicobar Island: 1045 sq. km (653.1 sq. mi.) Highest Elevation: 2415.6 feet (732 meters)

Location:
Lies east of the Indian mainland between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. Its southernmost island is only 200 km (120 mi) from the northern tip of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Located 1255 km from Calcutta, 1190 km from Chennai and 1200 from Vishakhapatnam.

Latitude and Longitude:
6 14 N Latitude and 92 94 E Longitude

Time Zone:
GMT +5

Total Land Area:
8249

EEZ:

Climate:
Tropical. High humidity of 80%. Annual mean temperature 28° C. /78° F., rainfall <250 inches. Rainy season is from May to September and November to January

Natural Resources:
oilseeds, various fruits and vegetables including coconut and arecanut, spices, rubber, palm and cashews.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
1981 69,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2001 665.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2003 60% 23% %

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

External Aid/Remittances:
External Budget: revenues: 86.6 billion expenditures: n/a Exports: n/a Partners: mainland India Imports: n/a Partners: mainland India Debt - external: n/a

Growth:
n/a

Labour Force:
2001 103,844

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2003 9.5%

Industry:
tourism, fishing, shell and wood based handcrafts, production of PVC, paints, varnishes, conduit pipes, fiber glass. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation has expanded the field of tourism, fisheries, industries and industrial financing and functions as authorized agents for Alliance Airways. In addition, there are 1374 registered small scale, village and handicrafts units. Two units process and export fish products. Four medium-sized industrial units in the region produce polythene bags, PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnish, fiber glass and mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, etc. Small scale and handicraft units are also engaged in shell and wood crafts, bakery products, rice milling, furniture making.

Niche Industry:
adventure tourism, fishing

Tourism:

UP

Imports and Exports:

Exports: n/a Partners: mainland India Imports: n/a Partners: mainland India

Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:) mainland India
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:

Number of Main Ports:

Internal:

Air
Alliance Air operates three flights per week between Port Blair and Calcutta. The National Airport Authority is contemplating installing sophisticated facilities to enable aircraft to land even during poor conditions. Once these facilities are established, International Airlines will be encouraged to operate flights which will facilitate tourism promotion and direct cargo movement between Port Blair and other national/international destinations

Road:
The are 934 km of roadways on the islands. 1164 buses operate on 11 of the islands.

Sea:
The Inter-Island Service Sector regulates cargo ships that make regular trips from the mainland to the islands. These ships are small and have a 4-passenger carrying capacity. Private ships also travel between the islands.

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:
The region's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is 30% of the total Exclusive Economic Zone of India. In the waters of A&N Island over 1100 species of fish are identified of which about 30 species are commercially exploited at present.

Energy Policy:

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
2006 172 0 0 0 126 0 0 0 0 0

UP

Official Currency:
Rupee

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Institutes available in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands include the State Bank of India, Syndicate Bank, Allahabad Bank, United Bank of India, Canara Bank, Punjab National Bank, UCO Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Indian Bank and the UTI Bank.

Financial Services:
Banks and financial institutions that offer insurance are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. Their guidelines insist that a company have a net worth of not less than 500 Rs crores and a capital adequacy of not less than 10%. Their non-performing assets level must be lower by 1% than the industry average. In addition, their participation in the insurance joint venture should not exceed 30% of the new company paid capital and their total equity investment by the bank in all its subsidiaries and joint ventures does not exceed 20% of its net worth.

Communications/E-Commerce:
state of the art in Port Blair, but limited in the rest of the region.

Public Ownership:
Outsiders are forbidden to own land or settle on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands without a permit. Although hundreds of illegal settlers have been residents of the islands for centuries, since the tsunami on December 26th 2004, these people, who were evacuated to mainland Port Blair for their own safety, are being refused access to their homes. Tribal Councils on the islands are asserting their rightful ownership over tribal lands and preventing mainland settlers from returning to the islands in an attempt to salvage their now depleted resources.

Land Use:
arable land: 92%; permanent crops: 5%; other: 3%

Agriculture/Forestry:
fruits, vegetables, nuts, oil, fish, pigs 48,675 hectares of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and arecanut are the cash crops of the Nicobar group of islands. Oilseeds, vegetables and paddy are grown. Fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on the hills. Spices, including pepper, clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon are grown under multi-tier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale as well.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
The regions Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is 30% of the total Exclusive Economic Zone of India. In the waters of A&N Island over 1100 species of fish are identified of which about 30 species are commercially exploited at present. The territory has an estimated annual exploitable stock of about 1.6 million tons of fish. The present level of exploitation is only about 26,000 tons. A&N Administration lays special emphasis for promotion of fish culture, fish processing and other allied industries like fish pickling, canning, fish meal, fish oil etc. for domestic and international markets. The Administration proposes to establish a cold chain by setting up of a number of cold storages, ice plants and fish processing plants in different Islands like Neil, Havelock, Rangat and Diglipur. A 100% EOU Fish Processing unit has been commissioned in Port Blair.

Marine Life:
impact of tourism on rare flora and fauna as well as exotic birds, coral and various species of fish. Natural disaster, including most significantly, the devastation caused by the tsunami of 2004.

Critical Issues:
reestablishment of coconut crops, the islands' main cash crop after the tsunami of 2004. It is estimated that it will take ten years for the crops to return to capacity. In addition, 1/3 of the population of the Nicobar Islands were killed by the tsunami. Property damage to the region was extensive, and financial aid is limited due to the fact that these indigenous people are at the low end of the Indian social system. The islands are also protected under the Aboriginal Tribes Regulations. Local authorities are preventing relief organizations from entering the region for fear that the tribes people will become exposed to outside diseases such as hepatitis.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Port Blair

Political System:
Parliamentary form of government containing an independent judiciary which guarantees the fundamental rights and directive principles of State Policy. 1950, amended 1956, 1960, 1976, 1986. The Constitution recognizes statutes, case law and customary law consistent with its dispensations. Statutes are enacted by Parliament, State Legislatures and Union Territory Legislatures. There is also a vast body of laws known as subordinate legislation in the form of rules and regulations, as well as by-laws made by Central and State Governments and local authorities like Municipal Corporations, Municipalities, Gram Panchayats and other local bodies. This subordinate legislation is made under the authority conferred or delegated either by Parliament or the State or Union Territory Legislature concerned. There is a Lt. Governor of the islands who presides over both administrative divisions and individual government departments. Each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who, on the Andamans, is the Head of the District Administration and the agent for implementing various programmes, including centrally sponsored schemes and revenue related activities. The district of Andaman consists of two sub-division and five tehsils: Mayabunder and South Andaman, and Diglipur, Mayabunder, Rangat, Ferrargunj, Port Blair and Little Andaman respectively. On the Nicobar Islands every village in the tribal area has a village council headed by a 1st captain and aided by a 2nd and 3rd captain. Chiefs and Vice Chiefs are selected by the 1st captain. There are currently eight tribal councils in the Nicobar district. There are also four primitive tribes in the Andaman district. A federal system and the existence of the Central Acts and State Acts in their respective spheres has generally provided for a single integrated system of Courts to administer both Union and State laws. The highest court in India is the Supreme Court of India followed by the High Courts in each State or group of States. Ultimately, the decisions of the Supreme Court are binding on ALL courts. The Supreme Court of India comprises the Chief Justice and not more than 25 other Judges appointed by the President of India. Supreme Court Judges retire upon attaining the age of 65 years. In order to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court, a person must be a citizen of India and must have been, for at least five years, a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession, or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession for at least 10 years or he must be, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist. Provisions exist for the appointment of a Judge of a High Court as an Ad-hoc Judge of the Supreme Court and for retired Judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts to sit and act as Judges of that Court. Below the High Courts lies a hierarchy of Subordinate Courts. Panchayat Courts also function in some States under various names like Nyaya Panchayat, Panchayat Adalat, Gram Kachheri, etc. to decide civil and criminal disputes of petty and local nature. Different State laws provide for different kinds of jurisdiction of courts. Each State is divided into judicial districts and presided over by a District and Sessions Judge. This is the principal civil court of original jurisdiction and it can try all offences including those punishable by death. The Sessions Judge is the highest judicial authority in a district. Below him, there are Courts of civil jurisdiction, known in different States as Munsifs, Sub-Judges, Civil Judges etc. Similarly, the criminal judiciary comprises the Chief Judicial Magistrates and Judicial Magistrates of First and Second Class. Union Territory of India, a Sovereign Democratic Republic. The President is the head of state who in turn appoints the Attorney General and Parliamentary representatives. The Indian Parliament establishes laws on matters enumerated in the Union List. State Legislatures establish laws on matters enumerated in the State List. While both the Union and the States have power to legislate on matters enumerated in the Concurrent List, only Parliament has power to make laws on matters not included in the State List or the Concurrent List. In the event of repugnancy, laws made by Parliament shall prevail over law made by State Legislatures. The State law shall be void unless it has received the assent of the President, and in such case, shall prevail in that State

Political Parties:
Indian National Congress (INC)

Important Legislation:
Industrial Policy: enacted 1988, amended 1996. This policy has helped create investment in Small and Tiny Sector. However the Industrial growth has been modest and slow in view of the absence of attractive package of incentives and concessions to new industrial ventures. The main policy resolutions of the new Industrial Policy brings in line the Industrial Policy of the A&N Administration with the new industrial policy of the Government of India. It seek to have a balanced development of industries with special focus on the Tiny, Cottage & SSI Sector, giving emphasis to the economic and commercial exploitation of the natural resource of the Island. The promotion of the use of natural resources is not to disturb the overall ecological balance of the region. Industries in the large and medium sector set up for the development of infrastructure and in major thrust areas are also being encouraged, especially those industries that use locally available raw material to produce high value added products. This policy aims to improve the employment opportunities for local people. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands Integrated Industrial Development Corporation (ANIIDCO): enacted 1988. This company was set up under the Companies Act, 1956, as a wholly owned state government undertaking for promotion and development of industries. In addition to provision of financial assistance, it is also involved in developing industrial infrastructure like industrial estates, industrial parks, etc. and setting up industrial projects either on its own or in the joint sector in collaboration with private entrepreneurs or as wholly-owned subsidiaries. ANIIDCO develops industrial infrastructure facilities to enable prospective entrepreneurs to set up their industries in Andaman and Nicobar islands. ANIIDCO also provides technical assistance to entrepreneurs in the formulation of project reports and provides common facilities in the industrial estates. ANIIDCO provides loans and advances to the industrial units in the medium and large sectors to the maximum of Rs.400 lakh. The interest rate ranges between 13.5% to 17% depending upon the size of the loan. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme: enacted 2000 This insurance scheme replaces the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Corporation on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture. The main objective of this policy is to protect farmers against losses suffered due to crop failure on account of natural calamities, such as drought, flood, hailstorm, cyclone, fire, pest/disease etc. so as to restore their credit worthiness for the ensuing season. Aboriginal Tribes Regulations: enacted 1956 These regulations protect six aboriginal tribes and designate tribal reserve land. There are nine national parks and 96 sanctuaries comprising of small islands and one biosphere reserve. Tribal land is not allowed to be transferred by way of sale, exchange mortgage lease or otherwise to any person other than a member of an aboriginal tribe. No person other than a member of an aboriginal tribe may acquire interest in any land situated in a reserved area or in any product of or crop raised on such land. They are also excluded from carrying on trade or business on such land.

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
Union Territory of India

Citizenship:

Paradiplomacy:
n/a


HUMAN RESOURCES

356 265 (2001), 280 661 (1991), 188 741 (1981) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.7% (male n/a; female n/a) 15-64 years: 63.5% (male n/a; female n/a) 65 years and over: 4.8% (male n/a; female n/a (2004) Median age: total: 24.4 years male: 24.4 years female: 24.4 years (2004)

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
South Andaman District 3,106 208,471 59%
Nicobar District 1,841 42,068 12%
North and Middle Middle Andaman 3,302 105,613 29%

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up

UP

Migration:
n/a

Crude Birth Rate:
2004 22.8%
2006 14.34%

Life Expedctancy:
total population: 61.3 years (2004)

Crude Death Rate:
2004 8.38%
2006 4.19%

Ethnicity:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2004)

Class Division:

Languages:
Hindi(official) and English

Religion:
Hindu 68%, Christian 24%, Muslim 7%, other 1% (1991).

Literacy:
 total population: 81.18% (def: over 15 can read and write; 2001)

Education System:
There is free, compulsory education for children ages 5 to 14. There are 380 schools on 36 of the A&N islands: of these, 321 are managed by the department of Education, 60 of which are in tribal locations. Literacy is taught in English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Bengali. Textbooks, notebooks, stationary, schoolbags and uniforms are provided free of charge to all students. There is also an Adult Education Programme being implemented in order to improve the literacy rates in adults in the region.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
21
215
64
45
51
6
1

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
2005
6,027
71,180
6,353
686
2,699


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:
There are several medical services available on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Camps have been set up in remote areas to service victims of the tsunami of 2004. Most impressive is the Tele-medicine Project, which links, via satellite, the GB Pant Hospital in Port Blair with Sri Ramahandra Medical College & Research Institute in Chennai. The system allows medical records of patients to be transferred instantly, and helps doctors in distant and remote areas consult with specialty doctors without forcing their patients to travel long distances. This service is provided via live two-way audio and video.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Mythologically, the name Andaman was presumed to be derived from Hanuman, who was known to the Malays as Handuman. Since Prehistoric times, these islands were the home of aboriginal tribes. The tribes of, the Andaman group of islands are the Great Andamanese, Onges, Jarawas, and Sentinatese, all of Negrito origin. The tribes of Nicobars are the Nicobarese and Shompens, both of Mongoloid origin. The first British settlers arrived in 1789 and established the East India Company, but later abandoned the islands in 1796. In 1858, the British Indian Government established the penal settlement on these islands, known as Kalapani, for the deportation of freedom fighters from mainland India after the First War of Independence. This continued until the second World War. In 1942, during the Second World War, the Japanese forces occupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 1945, following the surrender of the Japanese forces, the British India Government reoccupied these islands and continued their administration until the Independence of the country in 1947. The population of these islands are descendants of Indian war criminals, Moplas, some criminal tribes from Central and United Provinces, refugees from East Pakistan, Burma and Sri Lanka, as well as ex-servicemen. Amazingly, on these islands people of all faiths and languages live together in harmony. Inter-religion and inter-regional marriages are common.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

“Andaman and Nicobar Islands.” (2004). Indian Tours. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: indiatour.com.andaman. Ayyar, T.G.N. (1956). The Andaman and Nicbar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes)Regulation ,1956. Office of the Chief Commissioner: Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: and.nic.in/PAT-Regulation.htm. “Dedication to INSAT-3C to the Nation and Inauguration of Andaman & Nicobar Islands Tele-medicine Project.” (2002). Indian Space Research Organization. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: asia.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html. Denyer, Simon. (2005). “Paradise Lost: tsunami crushes age-old tribes.” Science News Article: [Online Serial]. Available FTP: reuters.co.uk. “Facts About India.” (2004). World Facts Index. [Online Serial]. Available FTP:worldfact.us/India.htm. “Government of India Directory.” (2005). National Informatics Centre. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: goidirectory.nic.in/andaman.htm. “Indian Parliament.” (2004). National Informatics Centre. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: parlimentofindia.nic.in. “Indian States and Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar. (2005). WebIndia.com. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: webindia123.com/territories. “School Education In Our Island.” (2004). Directorate of Education A&N Administration Port Blair. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: and.nic.in/dir-edn.htm. “Supreme Court of India.” (2005). Department of Information Technology. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: supremecourtofindia.nic.in. Zoyba, Alaphiya. “Settlers Purged out of Nicobar Islands.” (2005). NDTV.com [Online Serial]. Available FTP: ndtv.com.

A & T at a glance 2007 http://www.and.nic.in/Know%20Andaman/ecostat2007/glance.htm 18th March 2008

UP

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