Jurisdiction Project

Barbuda

Overview:
Barbuda is a self-governing overseas independent territory of the United Kingdom and is part of a three-island state with Antigua and Redonda in the northeastern Caribbean. Barbuda is surrounded by miles of natural pink beaches that are unspoilt by tourism.

Territory:
A single island part of a three-island state with Antigua and Redonda in the northeastern Caribbean. Land: 175 sq. km (67 sq. mi); Highest Elevation: 139 feet (42 meters); Coastline: 80 km (30 miles).

Location:
The island is located in the middles of the northeastern Caribbean Leeward Islands. Situated 120 km (46 miles) east of the Virgin Islands, 40 km (15 miles) north of Antigua, and 725 km (279 miles) north of Trinidad and Tobago.

Latitude and Longitude:
17 40 N Latitude and 61 49 W.

Time Zone:
GMT -4

Total Land Area:
175

EEZ:

Climate:
Subtropical which is moderated by northeast trade winds. Low humidity. Annual mean temperature 28_ C. /78_ F., rainfall <100 cm. Hurricane and tropical storm season is July to October.

Natural Resources:
fish, coral, salt and limestone.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:

Per Capita GDP:

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

External Aid/Remittances:

Growth:
The Government of Antigua and Barbuda strongly believes that the development of human resources is the key to national development. It has therefore mandated that schooling be compulsory and free for the age group five to sixteen (5 - 16) years. Between 1992 and 1997 education’s share of the national budget remained relatively stable: between 9.45% and 10.40% of the total recurrent expenditure. This modest allocation of national recurrent expenditure was attributable to a downturn in the performance of the economy and deterioration in public finances with precipitated under-financing of the education and training sector. Yet since the development of a statutory body to regulate the new Education Levy in 1994, The Board of Education, there has been a steady increase in public expenditure on primary education since 1998, which has helped maintain the country's standard of financing education.

Labour Force:

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2002 12%

Industry:
tourism, fishing and agriculture

Niche Industry:
eco-tourism, water sports, fishing, yachting, cave exploration, bird sanctuary.

Tourism:
Tourism 60% of GDP: Transportation and Communication 19% of GDP; Education 10.4% of GDP; Other 10.6% of GDP.

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Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:

Number of Main Ports:

Internal:

Air
There are no international flights to Barbuda. Carib Aviation is the only airline to fly to Barbuda from Antigua, although a number of international carriers from North America, UK, and the Caribbean have flights to Antigua. Carib Aviation has two scheduled daily flights from the V C Bird International Airport. The plane is a DHC-6 Twin Otter with a seating capacity of 19 people.

Road:

Sea:
The Barbuda Express started a ferry service between Barbuda and Antigua in October 2004 and makes seven daily trips with a catamaran, while small cargo boats make the return trip to Antigua twice a week.

Other Forms of Transportation:
bicycles are available for rent on the island.

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)

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Official Currency:
Eastern Caribbean Dollar/USD

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 The only bank on the island is the Antigua Commercial Bank located near Codrington Airport. The bank opens on Mondays from 9 am to 4 pm, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays from 8 am to 4 pm, and on Fridays from 8 am to 3 pm. The bank closes on public holidays.

Financial Services:
Although Barbuda is part of an offshore jurisdiction in cooperation with Antigua, its banking and insurance services are limited due to the isolation of the island. The offshore sector is regulated by the Financial Services Regulatory Commission (FSRC) whose Board of Directors is comprised of public officials who are subject to severe penalties under the law for any breaches of their fiduciary responsibilities. The staff of FSRC is also governed by strict laws governing their behaviour. An internal insurance licence permits an IBC to engage in any insurance business other than domestic insurance. The Superintendent of International Insurance Corporations is empowered to revoke or suspend a licence if its registration is deemed to be detrimental to public interest. A stated capital of at least US$250,000 must be maintained at all times. Annual audited accounts must be filed with the Superintendent of International Insurance Corporations.

Communications/E-Commerce:
state of the art. Government and private sector information available online. English.

Public Ownership:
Property Ownership: there are normally no restrictions on the purchase of property in Barbuda. Yet before land is purchased by international investors a Non-Citizens Licence must be obtained.

Land Use:

Agriculture/Forestry:
livestock, fish and vegetables. The Barbuda Livestock Farmers' Improvement Co-operative Society (BLFICS) has developed livestock farming in Barbuda based on co-operative principles. It aims to demonstrate that livestock farming activities are a practical and profitable undertaking and intend to initiate, develop, and encourage better and more economical methods of producing healthy animals that can become part of the food chain of the Caribbean islands. Yet Barbuda farmers are faced with many constraints and regulatory administrative difficulties to doing business on the island. For example, the average farmer has difficulty in accessing finance, as most finance houses are reluctant to engage in discussions on setting up any business in Barbuda.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
maritime claims: territorial sea: 8 nautical miles; exclusive fishing zone: 200 nautical miles.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
limited natural fresh water resources. There are no streams or lakes; fortunately underground water is found in reasonable quantities and water is obtained from wells.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Codrington Village Previous Name of Barbuda: Wa‘omoni and Dulcina

Political System:
Parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government. Legal System: English Common Law. The system is administered by the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court. In both criminal and civil cases, there is the right of appeal to the Court of Appeal with the ultimate right of appeal to the Privy Council in England. Internal Government: The Barbuda Council runs the internal affairs of the island on a day-to-basis. The Barbuda Council was established in 1976 by the Barbuda Local Government Act, which created a council of 11 members. Nine members are elected by the registered voters of Barbuda, with the parliamentary representative and the senator as ex-officio members. The councillors serve for 4 years. The Barbuda Council administers and regulates agriculture, forestry, public health, public utilities, and roads and raises and collects revenue to meet expenses incurred in the performance of its functions. Associated Power: Antigua & Barbuda is an overseas territory of the UK, and member of the EU. Although A & B is an independent state, Britain remains responsible for external affairs, defense, internal security and international financial services. There are no elections since the monarch is hereditary. A governor is appointed by the monarch. Following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor. Parliament, situated in Antigua, consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representatives or MPs are elected by popular vote from 16 constituencies in Antigua and one in Barbuda. A general election must be held within five years of the previous one. Senators are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Prime Minister heads a Cabinet of Ministers who administer the State. All legislation is introduced in the House of Representatives and then passed to the Senate for review and assent. The whole form of Government is modelled very much on the British Parliamentary System. Currently citizens of Britain's overseas territories, including Barbuda are entitled to British citizenship. The British Overseas Territories Bill, passed in February 2002, provides automatic acquisition of British citizenship, including automatic transmission of citizenship to their children; the right of abode, including the right to live and work in the U.K. and the European Union (EU); the right not to exercise or to formally renounce British citizenship; and the right to use the fast track European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) channel at the airport, free of U.K. immigration controls. Judicial Branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court consists of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal. There is one Supreme Court Judge who is a resident of the islands and presides over the High Court. There are also the Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction.

Political Parties:
Elections are held every two years in March with four seats and five seats becoming vacant at alternate polls. Barbuda People's Movement; Barbuda People's Movement/ALP Alliance; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda.

Important Legislation:
Constitution: 1981 After independence, Antigua and Barbuda remained a monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the Head of State. Her representative is the Governor General, presently Sir James Carlisle. International Corporations Business Act: enacted 1982, amended 1998.. Some of the benefits provided to offshore companies formed under the IBC Act include the full exemption of all direct taxes in respect of any international trading, investment or commercial activity including withholding taxes and stamp duties. For banking there is a 3% tax on gross income (i.e. interest income and fees derived from the operations and investments of the banking business minus interest expense). No minimum capital is specified for an IBC and shares may have a nominal or no par value. The transfer of the charter of an IBC to a foreign jurisdiction, or vice versa, is explicitly permitted. The board of directors of a corporation may consist of a single member. In the case of banking, trust and insurance corporations, at least one director must be a citizen and resident of Antigua and Barbuda. The Merchant Ship Act: enacted 1985. This Act further expanded the facilities of the regions offshore centre. The designated port of registry in St John's, Antigua, is under the supervision of the Registrar of Ships, Department of Marine Services and Merchant Shipping. Registration can also be carried out in Germany by the Commissioner of Maritime Affairs, Department of Marine Services and Merchant Shipping, Patentbusch No. 4, 26125 Oldenburg, Germany. The procedures for ship registration or parallel (bareboat) registration are efficient and can be organised through several of the offshore operators. With the submission of required documentation, the Department of Marine Services provides quick response. The registration fees are competitive with other jurisdictions and are transparent, with no hidden costs. No age is set for the acceptance of ships for registration, but all ships over 499GRT must be in class. The Department of Marine Services does not duplicate safety inspections, but complements and controls the work of class societies. Unlike some other registers, Antigua has no nationality requirements for manning vessels. Money Laundering (Prevention) Act: enacted 1999. This legislation ensures that appropriate regulatory authorities have adequate access to the records of licensees, including appropriate gateway provisions providing for the sharing of information with international supervisory and law enforcement authorities.

Principal Taxes:
The only significant tax in Barbuda is income tax, which applies to the relatively few local companies and to individuals. Although there are some real estate taxes, there are no inheritance taxes, death duties, gift taxes, duty, capital gains, capital transfer, or estate taxes.

Associated Power:
Antigua & Barbuda/United Kingdom

Citizenship:

Paradiplomacy:
Antigua & Barbuda: CARICOM (Caribbean Community; associate), United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, The Organization of American States, Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), and the Eastern Carribbean's Regional Securtiy Systems (RSS).


HUMAN RESOURCES

1,500

2005
Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population

Age structure: 748 males and 669 females (2001)

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up

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Migration:

Crude Birth Rate:

Life Expedctancy:
total population: 73 years

Crude Death Rate:

Ethnicity:
black, British, Portuguese, Levantine Arab

Class Division:

Languages:
English (official)

Religion:
Protestant (Pentacostal, Baptist, The People's Church, an independent Pentacostal), Roman Catholic, Anglican.

Literacy:
 total population: 90% (def: over 15 can read and write; 2002)

Education System:
Children are required to attend school between the ages of 5 and 16. Upon completion of grade 12 students may attend the University of the West Indies School of Continuing Studies, the Antigua State College or the Hotel Training School. During the 18th century, education was left to the home and to charity. In 1838, just after emancipation, the sum of sterling 30,000 was made available to the church for the start of elementary education. The churches in those days bore the burden of education and establishing schools. Therefore, Holy Trinity got its name from the parish itself. The government took over operation of the Holy Trinity School, commenced in 1923 by the Anglican Church, in 1953, but the Church continues to have an interest in the School. In 1973, on the invitation of the Minister of Education, agreed to station in Barbuda a priest who could give part-time service in the Secondary wing which had been added to the school in 1971.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:
Medical services on Barbuda are limited, although there are several general practitioners and specialists on Antigua, a hospital and a private clinic.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Evidence suggests that the Archaic Age peoples were present in the River area of Barbuda around 3685 BC. It was around this time that the sand dunes began to form in the Palmetto area. Yet the most significant settlements occurred in the latter part of the first millennium. Amerindian sites have been found in Suffra in the Spanish Point area and Indian Town near Two Foot Bay. Caribs, originating from Dominica and St Vincent, made regular incursions to Barbuda during the 13th to 16 century and gave the island the name Wa‘omoni. In 1628 Captain Smith and John Littleton attempted to colonise Barbuda from St Kitts under Letters Patent issued to the Earl of Carlisle in 1625. In these Letters Patent Barbuda was named Barbado. This attempt at colonisation failed as a result of Carib Indian resistance. These early settlers called Barbuda Dulcina. In 1666 the village of Codrington was established as the main residential centre. On January 9th 1685 Christopher and John Codrington were granted the first 50 year lease for Barbuda by King Charles II. Queen Anne renewed and extended the lease for 99 years to Christopher Codrington on June 5th 1705. The rent ascribed to the lease was "one fat sheep yearly if demanded". During this period Barbuda was established as a provisioning station for the Codrington estates in Antigua and other eastern Caribbean islands. The Africans who came to Barbuda are known to have come from the Ibo, Yoruba, and Ejo tribes of Nigeria, from Ghana, Gambia, and Sierra Leone. In his will, Christopher Codrington bequeathed certain areas of Barbuda to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The produce and the profit from these areas were to be used for the maintenance and upkeep of Codrington College in Barbados. The first comprehensive written record of the early inhabitants of Barbuda comes from information contained in the Letter and Memorandum Book of Sir William Codrington (1715-1790). An entry begins with the statement "a list of what white servants, negroes, cattle, and horses that I have now at Barbuda July 27th 1719". The book provides an extensive record of the first African slaves, who were the ancestors of present-day Barbudans, including names, gender, and age group. The white servants originated mainly from the United Kingdom via other Caribbean islands. The stock included cattle, horses, hogs, goats, and sheep. Later accounts from 1756 to 1792 reveal that Barbudans were shipwrights, hunters, house carpenters, wheelwrights, collar makers and saddlers, shoemakers, sail and pipemakers, and tanners. The list of 1756 identifies Cubba, a woman, as "doctress". Here we have the first appearance of surnames still currently in use. These included Jack Punter, Joe Mapps, Jeff Frank, Will Beazer, Bess Beazer, Tom Teague, Sam Roses, and Will Bayley. The origin of the slave breeding controversy on the island stems from this period. Codrington, in correspondence with his manager, suggested that the island should become a nursery for negroes to make Barbuda more profitable. The intention being that Barbuda could become the supplier of slaves for resale to other Caribbean islands. Lowenthal and Clark (1977) calculated that 172 slaves were exported from 1779 to 1834. Most were destined for estates in Antigua, but 37 went to the Leeward and Windward Islands, and others to the southern colonies in the United States. Exported batches of 12, 18, 24, 15, 19, and 41 slaves would suggest to this writer that Codrington made sure his policy was implemented. Records reveal several Barbudan slave rebellions occurred during the employment of managers Dennis Reynolds, John James, John Osbourne, Dickson, Jarritt, and Winter. The most serious was the insurrection in 1834-5 when an attempt was made to ship all Barbudans to Codrington's plantations in Antigua. There was a general revolt and troops were sent from Antigua to quell the uprising. An additional factor that induced the insurrection may been the failure by the British Parliament to name Barbudans in the Slavery Emancipation Act of 1834. Thus, Barbudans had to free themselves from slavery. At abolition, Barbudans numbered 500.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

Antigua and Barbuda.(2005, August).US Department of State: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: state.gov/r/pa/bgn/2336.htm. Antigua and Barbuda Bills Currently Before parliament. (2006). Ministry of Legal Affairs, Government of Antigua and Barbuda. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: laws.gov.ag/bills/ Antigua and Barbuda Country Report.(2006). World Education Forum. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: 2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/antigua_barbuda/rapport_1.html Antigua and Barbuda Education.(2005). Encyclopedia of the Nations: Americas. Thompson Corporations. [Online Serial] Available FTP: nationsencyclopedia.com/ Americas/Antigua-and-Barbuda-EDUCATION.html. Antigua and Barbuda Travel Tips.(2005). South Travels. [Online Serial].Available FTP: southtravels.com/america/antiguabarbuda/traveltips.htm. Barbuda.(2005, March).Antigua Museums. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: antiguamuseums.org/barbuda.htm. Offshore Business in Antigua and Barbuda. (2005). Offshore Financial Sector. London: High Commission for Antigua. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: antigua-barbuda.com/ finance_investment/offshore_sector.asp. School in Barbuda. (2005). Antigua and Barbuda Department of Environment. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: environmentdivision.info/barbuda/school/htm. The Island of Barbuda. (2006)Anigua and Barbuda Department of Touism. Barbuda: InterknowledgeCorp. [Online Serial]. Available FTP: antigua-barbuda.org/Agbar01.htm.

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