Jurisdiction Project

Bougainville

Overview:
It is a volcanic island in the SW Pacific Ocean and the largest island in the Solomon Islands chain. With the neighbouring island of Buka, it forms part of Papua New Guinea.

Territory:
Bougainville is 75 miles (120 km) long and 40–60 miles (65–95 km) wide. Bougainville is rugged and densely forested. It rises to a height of 2,743 m at the cratered summit of the Balbi stratovolcano. From the mountainous interior the land gives way to plains and coastal lowlands that fringe the entire island. Off the eastern coasts, particularly in the south east, are a series of fringing reefs that gradually move closer to shore towards the north. The island is heavily vegetated with coastal strand vegetation, mangrove forests, freshwater swamp forests, and extensive areas of undisturbed lowland and montane rainforest.

Location:
Bougainville is situated in the Solomon Sea between Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Solomon islands.

Latitude and Longitude:
6 23 S, 155 56 E

Time Zone:
GMT -1

Total Land Area:
9318

EEZ:

Climate:

Natural Resources:
Copper mining was important until 1989 when an insurrection closed down the mine.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:

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% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
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Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)

Industry:
The economy is mainly agricultural; major exports are copra, ivory nuts, green snails, cocoa, tortoise shells, and trepang.

Niche Industry:

Tourism:

UP

Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
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TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

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Internal:

Air

Road:

Sea:

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Energy Policy:

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)

UP

Official Currency:
Kina

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
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Financial Services:

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Public Ownership:

Land Use:

Agriculture/Forestry:
Bougainville Island is very rich in terms of agricultural produce and mineral resources. The Island was once the leading producer of cocoa, copra and other commodities.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
The mining activity has seriously damaged the island’s environment.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Buka

Political System:
The Autonomous Bougainville Government has jurisdiction only over the Autonomous Region of Bougainville in accordance with its Constitution and the Bougainville Peace Agreement as implemented in Part XIV (Bougainville Government and Bougainville Referendum) of the PNG National Constitution. The Bougainville Interim Provincial Government (BIPG)is the elected provincial member of the National Parliament. The BIPG with the Provincial Administration (Public Service) are based in Buka Town. Their main function is the delivery of National Government goods and services to the people of Bougainville.

Political Parties:
The House of Representatives has a total membership of 41, comprising 39 elected members, the Speaker and the President. The Speaker is appointed by the House from outside its membership and the President is a full member of the House – the Vice-President is appointed from amongst the elected MPs.

Important Legislation:
The Bougainville High Court and other Bougainville Courts are part of the PNG National Judicial System. The Bougainville Courts consist of – (a) the Bougainville High Court (b) Bougainville courts (other than the Bougainville High Court and a court with a jurisdiction similar to that of a National Village Court) (c) the Supreme Court established under the National Constitution, which is the final court of appeal for the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, including appeals in relation to determinations made by the Bougainville High Court under the jurisdiction of the Bougainville High Court; and (d) the National Court established under the National Constitution.

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
Papua New Guinea

Citizenship:
Papua New Guinean

Paradiplomacy:
The United Nations Political Office in Bougainville (UNPOB) was established in August 1998 in response to a written request by the PNG government to the United Nations Security Council.


HUMAN RESOURCES

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up

UP

Migration:

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Life Expedctancy:

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Ethnicity:
Melanesian, Papuan, other

Class Division:

Languages:
English and Pidgin are the languages spoken on the island as well as 21 distinct indigenous languages.

Religion:
Bougainville is a separate Catholic Diocese from PNG since 15th November 1966. 81.3% of the population is Catholic. The diocese is divided into 31 parishes and the ratio of Catholics to Priests is 6,216. (2007) Christian 94.03%, traditional beliefs 3.83%,Buddhist 0.28% (2000)

Literacy:
 

Education System:

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Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 The island was explored in 1768 by the French navigator Louis de Bougainville. Unlike the rest of the Solomon Islands, which became British territory, Bougainville and Buka became part of German New Guinea in 1884. Occupied by Australian forces during World War I, Bougainville was mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920. During World War II the island was the last Japanese stronghold in the Solomons. It became part of Papua New Guinea in 1973. A bloody secessionist uprising, begun in the late 1980s, persisted through much of the 1990s. In 1998 a cease-fire, monitored by Australian-led forces, went into effect. A peace accord granting broad autonomy to Bougainville was signed in 2001, and a constitution was adopted in 2004. Peacekeeping forces were replaced by a smaller transition team in 2003.

Referenda:
A peace agreement finalised in 2000 provided for the establishment of an Autonomous Bougainville Government, and for a referendum in the future on whether the island should become politically independent. Elections for the first Autonomous Government were held in May and June of 2005, Joseph Kabui was elected President.

Recent Significant Events:
Bougainville Island has a history of separatist feelings. Behind some Bougainvilleans' separatism was the view that the money from the Panguna Copper Mine, a development which accounted for much of PNG's export revenue, was going to the national government and overseas and not back to the local community. This simmering resentment, together with other local tensions, led to the outbreak of hostilities in 1989. The conflict spread throughout the island and lasted 9 years. Twenty thousand Bougainvilleans lost their lives. After lengthy negotiations, the Comprehensive Political Settlement was struck between the Government of PNG and provincial leaders in August 2001, ending the civil war in Bougainville. The agreement gave Bougainville the right to exceptional autonomy within PNG and granted the province the option of a referendum on its future political status, including the option of independence, to be held 10 to 15 years after the election of an autonomous Bougainville Government. The autonomous elections took place from 20 May to 2 June 2005, and the Autonomous Bougainville Government was inaugurated on 15 June 2005.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

Foreign & Commonwealth Office http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1019041567021 10th January 2008

Encyclopedia Brittanica Online http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9015904/Bougainville-Island 14th December 2007

Unrepresented Peoples and Organizations (UNPO) http://www.unpo.org/member_profile.php?id=11 14th December 2007

The Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition cited in Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/65/bo/Bougainv.html 14th December 2007

oceandots.com Bougainville Island http://www.oceandots.com/pacific/png/bougainville.htm

Diocese of Bougainville http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/dboug.html 14th December 2007

Oxford Reference Premium Online http://www.oxfordreference.com 14th December 2007

Conciliation Resources http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/png-bougainville/role-unpob.php 6th January 2008

PNG Official Website http://www.igr.gov.pg/nsp.html 6th January 2008

Pacific Islands Governance Portal http://www.governance.usp.ac.fj/top-menu/countries-and-territories/bougainville/governance-information/ 6th January 2008

UP

Useful Links:
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www.upei.ca
www.google.ca

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