Jurisdiction Project

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Overview:
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are a group of 27 islands, and are composed of 2 atolls: North Keeling, and South Keeling. South Keeling consists of 26 islands in a horseshoe formation around a large lagoon (approximately 10 km across). It is located in the Indian Ocean, approximately 900 km (559 mi) Southwest of Java, Indonesia. As of 2001, approximately 80 % of the population inhabited Home Island, with the remainder primarily consisting of Australian-based individuals on a 2-3 year government contract on West Island. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands is a Shire within the Australian Commonwealth. The capital is West Island.

Territory:
Located 2,768 km. (1,720 mi) Northwest of Perth, Australia, approximately 900 km (559 miles) Southwest of Christmas Island, and 1,550 km (963 mi) Southwest of Java, Indonesia. Highest elevation: 9 m (29.5 ft). It is an archipelago consisting of 27 islets, although only 2, Home Island and West Island, are inhabited. The 27 islands are made up by 2 separate atolls. 26 of the islets surround a single lagoon (which covers 110 sq. km., or 42.5 sq mi) on 1 atoll, while 24 km (15 mi) North is North Keeling Island. The islands are low-lying (mostly 2-5 m above water), with rough coral beaches.

Location:
Located 2,768 km. (1,720 mi) Northwest of Perth, Australia, approximately 900 km (559 miles) Southwest of Christmas Island, and 1,550 km (963 mi) Southwest of Java, Indonesia. 12 10 South Latitude and 96 52 East Longitude. 1 ½ hours behind Western Standard Time.

Latitude and Longitude:
12 10 South Latitude and 96 52 East Longitude.

Time Zone:
GMT -1

Total Land Area:
14

EEZ:

Climate:
Climate is tropical. The average rainfall is 2,020 mm/year. Because of the Southeast trade winds, the climate is quite standardized. Daytime temperatures rarely exceed 30 Celsius, while nighttime rarely dips below 23 Celsius.

Natural Resources:
Fish

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2003 3,223,610.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2004 5,125.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2001 2.6% 26% 71.4%

External Aid/Remittances:
2003/04:$1,330,693.

Growth:
Tourism is seen as potential growth area, but currently draws approximately 250 visitors/year. Expansion is hampered by isolation and lack of convenient transportation. The unofficial unemployment rate is considerably higher than the official rate, which is based on the percentage of the labour force that are actively searching for employment. According to a World Bank report dated 1998, the unemployment rate was actually 63 %.

Labour Force:
2001 264
1996 253
2006 236

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2001 12.1%
1996 7.9%
2006 4.7%

Industry:
Coconut production, tourism.

Niche Industry:
Scuba diving, copra.

Tourism:

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Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports: 1
There is one international airport, the Cocos Islands Airport, located on West Island. It has 1 asphalt runway, 2,438 m (7,999 ft). National Jet Systems operates twice weekly service between Perth, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. These flights are subsidized by the federal government. A 1999 report by the Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories indicated many problems with the air service. Only 30 seats per flight were allocated to residents of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, as seats for passengers from Christmas Island also had to be reserved. Bookings were often required 5 months in advance, which is a nuisance to the residents, and detrimental to the development of a flourishing tourism industry.

Number of Main Ports:
No ports and harbours – lagoon anchorage only. Supply ships, travelling from Freemantle and Singapore, arrive every 4-6 weeks. These ships are important for the delivery of large items and bulk materials. Direction Island, the southernmost island, is a yachting centre.

Internal:

Air

Road:
There are approximately 15 km (approximately 9.3 mi) of roads. According to the 2001 census, 94 households owned at least 1 motor vehicle, not including motorbikes and motor scooters. There is a taxi company, Island Taxi, operating on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:
The territory is a duty-free zone.

Energy Policy:
There are diesel generators on both inhabited islands. Wind turbines supplement the energy supply on Home Island. Lighting on Direction Island, as well as Trannies Beach and Scout Park on West Island, are provided by solar panels.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Official Currency:
Australian dollar ($AU)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Basic banking is available twice weekly at the local Commonwealth Bank agency on West Island. There are no ATMs on the islands, and limited credit card facilities are available.

Financial Services:
n/a

Communications/E-Commerce:
Since January 1994, Australia Post has handled postal and philatelic duties. There are post offices, offering limited services, on both inhabited islands. According to a study released in by the Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories in 1999, the level of service available is unreliable. Operating once a week, delivery is hankered by infrequent sea/air service, which results in urgent documents from the mainland often arriving late. Mail is also occasionally misdirected to Cook Islands in the Pacific. There is also the widely reported problem that mail is often removed from flights to make room for extra passengers, luggage, and/or fresh food. The same report noted difficulties in the telecommunications system. Faxes were reported to take upwards of 5 minutes/page to send to the mainland. Among other issues, local businesses were at a disadvantage with the mainland because of delays in cheque clearances and payment, as well as frequent service interruptions. There is one local radio station, VKW, staffed by volunteers. A variety of mainland Australia-based radio channels are available; likewise, various television channels from Western Australia are available by satellite. Television service is within the Australian network. Internet use appears to be slow to catch on. According to the 2001 census, 171 of respondents used the internet at home, work, or elsewhere, while 422 did not use it at all. Government online presence is weak. There are no local newspapers. Newspapers and magazines are not typically available for purchase, although the West Island District High School library carries numerous titles.

Public Ownership:
Cocos Keeling Administration: housing on West Island (except for private dwellings), airport, inter-island ferry services, utilities (tendered to West Australia Water Corporation). Cocos Keeling Shire: maintains homes on Home Island.

Land Use:
North Keeling Island doubles as Pulu Keeling National Park. It is operated by Parks Australia, which has an office on West Island, staffed by 3 rangers. The island is 2 km by 400 metres, but the National Park also includes the water extending 1.5 km around it. The park was proclaimed on 12 December 1995 when the Shire Council agreed to lease the island to the Commonwealth as a National Park, under the terms of the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1975. The National Park is overseen by an Advisory Committee with 10 members: 6 represent the Cocos Malay community, 3 are from West Island, and the Director of National Parks. The only island in the Indian Ocean without feral animals, the waters protected around North Keeling host 99 species of coral and approximately 528 species of fish. The land is renowned as a great seabird rookery. Furthermore, North Keeling is the only spot in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands with natural vegetation, as it was removed elsewhere to make room for the coconut plantations that dominated the local economy. It should be noted that there are plans to re-vegetate the southern atoll, to be followed eventually with a re-colonization of birds from North Keeling. Parks Australia also extends special protection on an area known as “the Rip” on Direction Island. The Rip is a section of reef with high conservation value; therefore, it is protected from anglers and harvesters.

Agriculture/Forestry:
Bananas, pawpaws, coconuts, and vegetables grown locally. The only food exported is coconuts and their by-products. Most food must be imported.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Maritime claims: 12 nautical miles. Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nautical miles. Australia maintains jurisdiction over the marine area surrounding Christmas Island; lagoon waters fall under internal jurisdiction.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
The islands’ small size and isolation has led to transportation problems, such as infrequent flights and high cost. High flight costs and infrequency of schedule has made emergence of tourism industry difficult. Absence of local industry: there are no natural resources beyond small-scale aquaculture. Limited fresh water supply. Rainwater is collected; likewise, over 140 kilolitres/day are collected from lenses located in the coral sand and gravel beneath West and Home islands.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Shire within Australian Commonwealth.

Political System:
Governed internally by unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council: consists of 7 seats elected by popular vote to 4 year terms, and is responsible for the provision of local government services. Council is governed by the Western Australian Local Government Act 1995 (CI) (CKI). The Shire is responsible for maintaining homes on Home Island, road maintenance, horticultural services, garbage collection, tree surgery services, coral and sand supplies. It is also an agency for the Department of Social Security, and handles some limited contract work. It is the principal facilitator for economic and social development, as well as the Trustee for 6/7 of land in the Territory. Administrator: appointed by the Governor General on advice of the federal Cabinet, is responsible for maintaining “law, order, and good government” on Christmas Island. The Administrator handles the territory on behalf of the Commonwealth, exercises powers and function on behalf of instructions from the Minister for Regional Services, Territories and Local Government. Cocos (Keeling) Administration: responsible for utilities (tendered to West Australia Water Corporation), airport management (through an agreement with Westralia Airports Corporation), public transport, marine services, West Island housing (except for private dwellings), and public building maintenance. Western Australian government agencies: deliver many state-level services in Cocos through Service Delivery Arrangements with the Federal Department of Transport and Regional Services.

Political Parties:
No political parties. All candidates run as independents. Elections are staggered, being held every 2 years (4/3). First full election with the Shire system was held in 1993. The island is not divided into wards. Justice System: Provided by the Western Australian State system. Courts of Western Australia have jurisdiction in and in relation to the Territory as if it was part of Western Australia. There are two branches: the Magistrate’s Court and the Supreme Court. Court system is handled by visiting magistrates from the Australian mainland.

Important Legislation:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955 This is the legislative basis for the islands’ administrative, legislative, and judicial system. It establishes an Administrator, appointed by the Governor-General, as head of the Commonwealth Administration in the territory. The Administrator is also responsible for law, order, and good governance. Passed by Australian Commonwealth. Cocos Islands Act 1955 Act passed in Westminster in support of transferring territory to Australia. Territories Law Reform Act 1992 Amended the aforementioned Act. It replaced the Singapore-based legal regime with modern Australian law (specifically, the laws of the State of Western Australia and numerous Commonwealth Acts). This a major step in providing the same rights, responsibilities and obligations as those enjoyed by other Australians. Local Government (Transition) Ordinances 1992 Established the Shire of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, absorbing the predecessor Cocos (Keeling) Islands Council.

Principal Taxes:
Subject to Australian tax system, except there is no GST applied. Also, “state” taxes are applied based on those applied in Western Australia. Australian [Commonwealth] Income Tax: Resident Individual Income Tax (2004/05) Taxable Income $0-6,000 Nil $6,001-21,600 17¢/dollar over $6,000 $21,601-58,000 $2,6652 plus 30¢/dollar over $21,600 $58,001-70,000 $13,572 plus 42¢/dollar over $58,000 Over $70,000 $18,612 plus 47¢/dollar over $70,000 Above taxes do not include medical levy of 1.5% Company Tax Rates (2003/04) Companies generally 30% Non-profit Companies Taxable Income $0-416 Nil $417-915 55% $915-Over 30% Western Australia State Taxes: Land Tax (2004/05) Unimproved value of land $0-100,000 Nil $100,000-220,000 $150.00 plus 0.15¢/dollar over $100,000 $220,000-570,000 $330.00 plus 0.45¢/dollar over $220,000 $570,000-$2,000,000 $1,905.00 plus 1.76¢/dollar over $570,000 $2,000,000-5,000,000 $27,073.00 plus 2.30¢/dollar over $2,000,000 $5,000,000-Over $96,073.00 plus 2.50¢/dollar over $5,000,000 Pay-roll Tax (2005) 5.5% [Assessed on wages paid by employer, unless total wages paid per annum is below $750,000] There are also a variety of Stamp Duties charged on transfers and sales.

Associated Power:
Australia

Citizenship:
Unlike most Commonwealth Territories, which under the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 are exempt from federal Parliament legislation unless explicitly stated in the legislation, all Australian federal legislation is applicable to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Australian Customs Service is responsible for customs on the island. Travellers from the Australian mainland do not require visas or passports when visiting the island.

Paradiplomacy:
ocos (Keeling) Islands has no international status separate from Australia. As such, Australia is responsible for handling international treaties on the island’s behalf.


HUMAN RESOURCES

Population (by year): 629 (2004 est.) 621 (2001) 655 (1996) Population (by age): <15: 165 15-65: 409 > 65: 30 (2001) [Total population for this survey equals 604, rather than 621 total population provided in 2001 census.]

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population

Net Migration: N/A Birth Rate: N/A Life Expectancy: N/A Death Rate: N/A

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2001 165 0 0 0 30
2006 159 66 184 110 51
2006 150 65 198 111 47

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Migration:

Crude Birth Rate:

Life Expedctancy:

Crude Death Rate:

Ethnicity:
Of the approximately 600 residents, 450 are Cocos Malay, living on Home Island. Approximately 150 whites from mainland Australian live on West Island.

Class Division:
Home Island is predominately populated by Coco Malay, an Islamic group that speaks a Malay dialect. Descended from the Malay workers that the Clunies-Ross estate settled there in the early 1820s to cultivate the coconuts, this segment of the population, for the most part, did not receive formal education until the late-1970s. English is the second language of these residents. Given the lack of industry on this island, the inhabitants are largely supported financially by the Commonwealth government. The residents of West Island are primarily mainland Australians of European descent who are working on government contracts in the area for 2-3 years. This transient segment of the population is better educated than the Cocos Malay, and are consequently wealthier. The public sector, which accounts for 50 % of employment on the islands, is centred on West Island.

Languages:
According to the 2001 census, 197 persons spoke English at home, while 380 were categorized under “Other.” 6 spoke French, and 36 of those surveyed did not provide an answer. Cocos Malay, a Malay dialect, is the predominant language on Home Island. An oral language, modern interpretation is given in Bahasa Indonesian/Malay, with local adaptation.

Religion:
Islam (66 %), Christian (15 %), Buddhist (0.005 %), No religion (13 %), Inadequately described (0.005 %), Not stated (6 %) (2001). The Coco Malay on Home Island are Islamic, while the residents of West Island tend to be Christian.

Literacy:
 

Education System:
Prior to the late-1970s, only limited education was available from the Clunies-Ross estate. Many Cocos Malay students are the first generation in their family to receive formal education. Education in Cocos (Keeling) Islands is funded by the Commonwealth, and contracted by the Western Australian Department of Education. It therefore has a curriculum quite similar to Western Australia, with the notable exception of cultural and linguistic considerations for the Cocos Malay. The Cocos Islands District High School has 2 campuses. The campus on Home Island schools approx. 70 students from k-6, while the West Island campus, from k-10, has approximately 80 students. Most students from Home Island ferry back and forth for years 7-10 on West Island, which is a 30 minute trip. The Home Island campus predominately Cocos, who are English as a second language students. This has lead to some difficulties, as well as innovative methodology. There is an effort to strike a balance between valuing Cocos culture, tradition and language, while promoting fluency in English. For kindergarten and pre-primary, classes are bilingual. The focus of years 1 and 2 is becoming comfortable in English; as such, an English teacher speaks, while another translates to the children. In years 3 and 4 all instruction is in English, with translations provided by an assistant when necessary. In years 5 and 6 students are taught English and Indonesian. All class groupings are multi-age and have at least 1 fulltime education assistant. After years 10, further education is available through the School of Isolated and Distance Education, or students travel to the Australian mainland. There is a skills shortage, largely attributed to the prohibitive cost of training brought about by high airfares.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv
Home Island
2

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
2006
8
54
31
10
7


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:
Medical and pharmaceutical services are provided by the Indian Ocean Territories Health Service. Medical treatment is available free of charge, although residents must pay for pharmaceuticals and dental services. The 2 community health clinics, located on Home Island and West Island, are publicly funded. As of 1999, there was 1 doctor and up to 4 community nurses split between the clinics. 2 Cocos Malay health workers provide translating services on Home Island, since 70 % of the Cocos Malay cannot communicate sufficiently with the doctor without the aid of an interpreter. Primary health care is offered. Dentists visit regularly to conduct work on students, which is covered by the government. Emergency dental services are also available to non-students. Specialists, such as paediatricians, visit periodically. Most specialists do not visit the island, however, so those that require their attention are usually sent to Christmas Island during visits by the appropriate specialists. Pregnant women are sent off-island, typically at 36 weeks. Emergencies result in evacuations to Perth. Residents are strongly encouraged to have medical and hospital insurance to cover medical evacuations to mainland Australia. The lack of flights to Cocos (Keeling) Islands can be problematic insofar that many tests and assessments handled on the island are sent to Perth for analysis. For example, an x-ray conducted on the island can take up to 10 days to be flown to Perth for assessment. This can lead to an unfortunate delay in medical diagnosis. There is no government support for community care, which is handled by the individual families.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands was first settled in the 1820s. Alexander Hare and John Clunies-Ross began settling Malay workers there in 1826 and 1827 to cultivate coconuts and process copra. In 1856 Britain annexed the islands. Thirty years later, in 1886, Queen Victoria granted the land, in perpetuity, to George Clunies-Ross and his heirs. The islands have been incorporated into a variety of administrative units: beginning in 1856 with London, in 1878 with Ceylon, in 1886 with the Straits Settlements, 1903 with Singapore, with Ceylon a second time in 1942, and finally with Singapore again in 1946. Became an Australian territory on 23 November 1955. In 1977 an Administrator was appointed, responsible to the Minister for Territories. Life on the islands changed very little until the 1970s, when a government report condemned the Clunies Ross family, the sole employers, for maintaining slave-like conditions. Life was severe: schooling was not compulsory, secondary schooling was not available, wages were low ($3 week/men, $1.50 week/men), wages were paid in tokens only redeemable at the company store, and there was an uncodified system of justice, with the Clunies Ross family as the final authority. In 1978 the Australian government bought the remainder of the Clunies Ross estate, minus the family residence on Home Island, but once mainland wages and conditions were established, the copra export business collapsed. It is estimated that over 60% of Coco Malay are unemployed; as such, they spend most of their time fishing and gathering seafood. A Cocos Malay Local Council was established in 1979.

Referenda:
On 6 April 1984 an Act of Self-Determination vote was held in the presence of the United Nations Visiting Mission. In this vote the Cocos Malay population chose integration with Australia, over options of independence and free association. This began the process of integration between the two locales. At the time the federal government agreed to raise the standard of living to levels comparable to the mainland within 10 years. This agreement was formalized in March 1991 when the Cocos Malay population and the federal government signed a Memorandum of Understanding, which led to the Territories Law Reform Act 1992, which began the process of instituting Western Australian and federal laws on the islands.

Recent Significant Events:
n/a

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

“1996 Census of Population and Housing, Territory of Cocos (Keeling Islands (Statistical Local Area) – Other Territories,” Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/D3310108.NSF/f4aab27beb15bd6eca2565540080536d/2ca10a41eaa03f1bca256552001d4199!OpenDocument April 15, 2005. “Chapter Five: Cocos (Keeling) Islands,” Island to Islands: Communications with Australia’s External Territories, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, March 1999. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/communication/report/chapter5.pdf April 14, 2005. Cocos Islands District High School. Retrieved from http://www.cocos.edu.cc/ April 7, 2005. “Cocos (Keeling) Islands,” CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ck.html April 14, 2005. Cocos (Keeling) Islands Historical Society. Retrieved from http://www.cocos-history.cc/ April 14, 2005. “Cocos (Keeling) Islands Local Consultations – Formal response by the Federal Government,” 1 May 2001, Northern Australia: Forum For Growth Into The New Century, Northern Australia Forum. Retrieved from http://www.dotrs.gov.au/regional/northern_forum/formal_response/cocos_islands/cocos_islands_formal_response.pdf April 16, 2005. Cocos (Keeling) Islands Tourism Association. Retrieved from http://www.cocos-tourism.cc/ April 5, 2005. “Cocos Keeling Island,” World Aero Data. Retrieved from http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=CK48211 April 14, 2005. “Company tax rates,” Australian Government, Australian Taxation Office. Retrieved from http://www.ato.gov.au/taxprofessionals/content.asp?doc=/content/44266.htm&pc=001/003/019/001/006&mnu=7039&mfp=001/005&st=&cy=1 May 3, 2005. Eastwood, Ken, “Run to paradise,” Australian Geographic, January-March 2002, Issue 65. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, April 4, 2005. “General Information,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/cocos/ April 7, 2005. “Home Island,” Cocos Islands District High School. Retrieved from http://www.cocos.edu.cc/homeisland.htm April 7, 2005. “Indian Ocean Territories Situation Report,” September 2002, Northern Forum Reports, Northern Australia Forum. Retrieved from http://www.dotrs.gov.au/regional/northern_forum/locations/indian_ocean_territories/situation_report/economic_activity.htm April 9, 2005. “Individual income tax rates,” Australian Government, Australian Taxation Office. Retrieved from http://www.ato.gov.au/taxprofessionals/content.asp?doc=/content/12333.htm&pc=001/002/046/002/002&mnu=7040&mfp=001/005&st=tp&cy=1 May 3, 2005. “Introduction,” Shire of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Retrieved from http://www.shire.cc/page2.html April 7, 2005. “Land Tax-Rates,” Department of Treasury and Finance, Office of State Revenue [Western Australia]. Retrieved from http://www.dtf.wa.gov.au/cms/osr_content.asp?id=239 May 18, 2005. “Location,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands Tourism Association. Retrieved from http://www.cocos-tourism.cc/location.htm April 7, 2005. Mowbray, Martin, “The Cocos (Keeling) Islands: A study in political and social change,” Australian Journal of International Affairs, November 1997, Vol. 51, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, April 4, 2005 Murray, Wendy, “Cocos (Keeling) Islands Integrated Marine Management Plan (IMMP),” The World Bank/WBI’s CBNRM [Community-Based Natural Resource Management] Initiative. Retrieved from http://srdis.ciesin.columbia.edu/cases/australia-001.html April 16, 2005. “Pay-roll Tax Overview,” Department of Treasury and Finance, Office of State Revenue [Western Australia]. Retrieved from http://www.dtf.wa.gov.au/cms/osr_content.asp?ID=177 May 18, 2005. “Population,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands Tourism Association. Retrieved from http://www.cocos-tourism.cc/people.htm April 7, 2005. “Priorities,” Cocos Islands District High School. Retrieved from http://www.cocos.edu.cc/priorities.htm April 7, 2005. “Pulu Keeling National Park,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands Tourism Authority. Retrieved from http://www.cocos-tourism.cc/pulu.htm April 5, 2005. “Question of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands,” 5 December 1984, United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/39/a39r030.htm April 14, 2005. “Renewable Remote Power Generation Programme (RRPGP),” Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Greenhouse Office. Retrieved from http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/rrpgp/ May 3, 2005. Shire of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Retrieved from http://www.shire.cc/ April 7, 2005. “Stamp Duty Overview,” Department of Treasury and Finance, Office of State Revenue [Western Australia]. Retrieved from http://www.dtf.wa.gov.au/cms/osr_content.asp?ID=178 May 18, 2005. “Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Statistical Local Area),” 2001 Census Basic Community Profile and Snapshot, Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@census.nsf/4079a1bbd2a04b80ca256b9d00208f92/eb5dc65b37a29bcaca256bbf0001d350!OpenDocument April 14, 2005. “The Territories and its Residents,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/cocos/cocos2.htm April 14, 2005. Thorn, Robert, “North Keeling Island,” Australian Geographic, April-June 2000, Issue 58. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, April 4, 2005. “Traveller Information,” Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/cocos/cocos3.htm April 14, 2005. “West Island,” Cocos Islands District High School. Retrieved from http://www.cocos.edu.cc/west.htm April 7, 2005.

2006 Census Table: the Territory of Cocos (Keeling Islands) http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=910053009&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=910053009&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=LPTD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Type%20of%20Educational%20Institution%20Attending%20(Full/Part-Time%20Student%20Status%20by%20Age)%20by%20Indigenous%20Status%20by%20Sex%20&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=School%20Education& 13th January 2008

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