Jurisdiction Project

Gotland

Overview:
Gotland is situated in the centre of the Baltic Sea, 90 kilometers from the Swedish mainland.

Territory:
3 140 sq km (0.8% of Sweden’s total area). Gotland also includes the islands of Fårö 114 sq km, Gotska Sandön 37 sq km, Furillen 4 sq km, Stora Karlsö 2.4 sq km, and Lilla Karlsö 1.6 sq km. Highest point: Lojsta hed 82 m above sea level Coastline: 800 km Size: North-South: 176 km East-West: 50 km

Location:
Located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Sweden

Latitude and Longitude:
57 N 18 E

Time Zone:
GMT +1

Total Land Area:
3140

EEZ:

Climate:
Gotland has a typical coastal climate with rather mild winters and pleasant summers. The latter arrive somewhat later than in the rest of Central Sweden. On the other hand, the warmer climate often lasts much longer, thereby prolonging the length of the autumn.

Natural Resources:
Rich farm land

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2003 1,798,115.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2003 10% 23% 67%

External Aid/Remittances:

Growth:

Labour Force:
0

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2003 4%

Industry:
Agriculture, Tourism. About 25 000 people are employed in Gotland at any time.

Niche Industry:

Tourism:
Almost 60 000 people reside on Gotland year round and during summer the amount of visitors reaches almost a million.

UP

Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:

Number of Main Ports:
The ferry company Destination Gotland has 16 departures per day during the summer and at least 1 per day car ferry service from either Nynäshamn south of Stockholm, or Oskarshamn in southeast Sweden.

Internal:

Air
Visby airport has more then 25 flights to Stockholm every day all year round. A flight from Visby to Stockholm takes about 35 minutes.

Road:
There are 843 km of roads on Gotland and car ferry services is available from main land Sweden.

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)

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Official Currency:
Swedish Krone (SEK)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 

Financial Services:

Communications/E-Commerce:

Public Ownership:

Land Use:

Agriculture/Forestry:

Marine Activity:

Fishing:

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Visby

Political System:
A municipality of Sweden, created by Sweden by combining a number of small municipalities on the island of Gotland to create the Gotland municipality in 1971. Sweden has 18 county councils and two regions, besides one municipality (Gotland) which assumes the responsibilities of a county council. In constitutional terms there are two levels in Sweden: central government (the state) and local government (municipalities and county councils). Society is organised and responsibilities are divided among three levels: the state, the county councils, and the municipalities. Every four years, simultaneous general elections are held for parliament, the county councils/regions, and the municipal councils. The activities of the county councils include health care, which accounts for the largest share of expenditure. Other major areas are public transport, the arts, tertiary education and high school education, the public dental service, and tourism. There are 289 municipalities whose operations are usually classified as those that they are obliged by law to provide and those that they have assumed voluntarily. According to the law, the municipalities are responsible for education, childcare, care of the elderly, planning and building matters, environmental health, sanitation and waste management, water and sewerage services, emergency and rescue services, and library services. Other operations are voluntary, such as leisure activities, the arts, energy, and business matters. The state is represented at regional level in the 21 Swedish counties by the county administrative boards. The heads of these boards, the county governors, are appointed by the government. Their duties include ensuring that activities in the county conform to the national objectives. The county administrative boards pursue their own activities in areas such as cultural heritage management, nature conservation, environmental protection, and support for the agriculture and fishery sector.

Political Parties:

Important Legislation:
Swedish constitution of 1974

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
Sweden

Citizenship:
Swedish

Paradiplomacy:


HUMAN RESOURCES

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2003 10151 0 0 0 10,366

UP

Migration:
2002 In-migration 1985; Out-migration 1910; Net migration 75.

Crude Birth Rate:
2002 9.53%

Life Expedctancy:
Infant mortality is low, at 3.4 deaths per 1,000 in the first year of life. Average life expectancy of 77.1 years for men and 81.9 years for women.

Crude Death Rate:
2002 11.41%

Ethnicity:

Class Division:

Languages:

Religion:
Lutheran

Literacy:
 

Education System:

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Compulsory school: Gotland has 47 schools with a preschool class and grades 1–6. They are spread all over the island and in many cases have quite a small number of pupils, sometimes around 50-100 students per school. Secondary schools for grades 7–9 exist in six places: Fårösund, Slite, Roma, Klintehamn, Hemse and Visby (two schools). Upper secondary school: At the municipal upper secondary school in Visby, known as the “Säve Unit”, there are 15 study programmes, some of them with a national intake, e.g. film and marine engineering. The school is divided into 4 free-standing upper secondary schools and a special unit for individual programmes. Pupils can also choose a special orientation in the traditional programmes, e.g. a Baltic profile, sports leader training etc. At Lövsta in Roma there are programmes geared to agriculture and handicraft. Free high school: Donnergymnasiet in Klintehamn is a free high school with an international profile. The school has six programmes, some of them geared to tourism and the cultural sector. Slite has the branch geared to media and catering. Gotland University College: was granted independent status on 1 July 1998. The University College concentrates on a limited number of profile areas such as: · archaeology · archaeo-osteology · ethnology · history · art history · human geography · IT/economics · ecology · building conservation · interactive media · Russian · power production Teacher training is also offered on Gotland, in conjunction with the Stockholm Institute of Education.

Medical Services:
By international standards, health in Sweden is relatively good. Cardiovascular conditions account for half of all deaths. However, deaths attributable to these diseases fell substantially during the 1980s, which has contributed to a higher average life expectancy of 77.1 years for men and 81.9 years for women. In Sweden, the counties are responsible for medical services.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 According to the Gotland Tale (Gutasagan); Gotland was an enchanted island which rose every evening and sank again every morning. The enchantment was broken when a man by the name of Tjelvar came to the island, bringing fire. Geological studies have shown that, although the tale might not be true, the island has sunk and risen many times from the sea. Archaeological findings show that people have lived in Gotland for over 7 000 years. Over 31 000 ancient remains have been recorded, making the island one of the richest areas in Sweden in ancient findings. Silver findings from Gotland has shown that trade with continental Europe was in full swing during the reign of the Roman Empire and probably even earlier. During the Viking Era and for several hundred years onwards, Gotland and especially the capital city Visby, became the center of trade in the Baltic Sea. Thanks to the Gotlanders' skills in boat building, they travelled far and wide, trading with whomever they met on their travels. The island lost its independence when the Germans moved in, taking over the trade and the city of Visby joined the Hanseatic league. The businessmen were showing their wealth by building private churches, of which many still exist. Finally, the differences between the rich city businessmen and the poorer peasants ended in the invasion of the island by the Danes who killed many peasants in the process. It is generally considered to be the end of Gotland's period as a powerful trading nation. Soon after, Mecklburgian fleets took over the island. Finally, the German Order State had its turn in invading and ruling the island. Gotland returned to Swedish ownership in 1645 and has since then remained Swedish. Gotland became christianised in the 12th century. According to Gutasagan, a Norwegian king, on the run from his own people, came to the island, bringing Christianity. The Gotlanders were not very impressed but finally the island joined the ranks of the faithful. It was not long before the Gotlanders took Christianity to their hearts, building many, many churches. There still exists over 90 churches on Gotland, most of which date from the Middle Ages. Gotland has a history as a sanctuary for refugees. During both World Wars, hundreds of Balts risked life and limb sailing over the Baltic Sea in small boats to reach safety, out of the hands of German and Russian invaders. Even today, refugees flee war and persecution, most of them coming from the Middle East via Russia.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

‘Gotland.’ Baltic Sea Seven Islands Organization. Available online (January 2005). ‘Gotland.’ Swedish Tourism Board. Available online (January 2005). ‘Gotland County Administration; Its Work and Its Role.’ Gotland County Administration. Available online (January 2005). ‘Gotland in Figures 2004.’ Municipality of Gotland. Available online (January 2005). Gotland Tourism Association. Available online (January 2005). Klintbom, Hans. ‘Gotland, Constitutional Circumstances.’ What Status For Europe’s Islands? Available online (January 2005). Statistics Sweden. Available online (January 2005).

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Useful Links:
IslandStudies.ca
www.upei.ca
www.google.ca

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