Jurisdiction Project

Guernsey, Herm, Sark

Overview:
The Bailiwick of Guernsey includes the islands of Guernsey, Alderney, Herm, and Sark. The Bailiwick is a British territory, although it is not a part of the United Kingdom, and consequently not a member of the European Union. The islands form a single unit governed by the Guernsey States of Deliberation, although Alderney and Sark have their own internal legislatures.

Territory:
Guernsey (including Lihou Island) is 63.1 sq. km. (24.3 sq. mi.); Alderney is 8 sq. km. (3.09 sq. mi.); Herm is 2 sq. km. (0.77 sq. mi.); Sark is 5 sq. km. (1.93 sq. mi.);

Location:
Guernsey is approximately 70 miles from south coast of England, 30 miles from France. Alderney is located 37 km (23 mi) Northeast of Guernsey. Herm is located 4.8 km (3 mi) East of Guernsey. Sark is located 9.6 km (6 mi) East of Guernsey.

Latitude and Longitude:
Guernsey 49 28 N, 2 35 W. Alderney 49 72 N, 2 20W. Herm 49 47 N, 2 45 W. Sark 49 43 N, 2 37 W.

Time Zone:
GMT

Total Land Area:

EEZ:

Climate:
Guernsey’s climate features warm, dry summers and mild, damp winters. The mean air temperature peaks between June and September at approximately 15°C, countered by a low of approximately 10°C between November and April. October to January are the rainiest months, averaging 90 mm or more per month, while April to August are the driest, averaging less than 60 mm. May to August average between 200-250 hours of sunshine per month, while November to February average less than 100 hours of sunshine per month.

Natural Resources:
Cropland.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2005 2,742,000,000.00 USD
2002 2,086,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2001 35,304.00 USD
2005 44,600.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2002 2% 11% 87%
2000 87% 10% 3%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2003 4.6% 14.6% 80.8%

External Aid/Remittances:
N/A

Growth:
5.7 % (1999 estimate)

Labour Force:
2001 32,631
1996 31,335
1991 30,772
2006 31,470

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2001 1.04%
2006 0.9%

Industry:
Finance sector, tourism.

Niche Industry:
Finance sector (particularly captive insurance companies).

Tourism:

UP

Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)
Tot. Value of Exports 93000000 USD (1998)
To Eu:
Export Partners: UK (regarded as internal trade)
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports: Coal, petrol, oil, machinery and equipment
Main Exports: Tomatoes, greenhouse flowers


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports: 2
Guernsey Airport, operated by the civil government. It replaced an older terminal in 2004. One asphalt runway: 1,463 x 45 m (4,800 x 148 ft). Regular flights to and from 18 different locations, including England, Germany, Ireland, Jersey, the Netherlands, and Scotland, serviced by 5 different airlines. There were 837,916 passenger air movements in 2002.

Number of Main Ports:
The Guernsey Harbour Authority is responsible for the administration and operation of ports at St Sampson’s (approximately 350 moorings) and St Peter Port (1,485 moorings). Condor Ferries links Guernsey with Weymouth, Poole, Portsmouth, Cherbourg, Jersey and St. Malo, with schedules varying by season. Alderney is serviced by Braye Harbour, the facilities of which include 70 visitor’s moorings. Two ferries provide transportation to Alderney. Year-round service is provided by a 12-passenger vessel, linking Cherbourg and Alderney on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and Alderney on Thursdays. A seasonal 199-passenger high-speed catamaran services Dielette, Cherbourg, Guernsey and Alderney. Two 12-passenger vessels are available for charter service to and from Alderney. Sark, located 9 miles off of Guernsey, is accessible only by sea. Year-round passenger and freight service is provided by the Isle of Sark Shipping Company Limited. The company operates 2 vessels year-round, augmented by a chartered passenger vessel in the summer. The island has two main harbours, the deep-water La Maseline Jetty, and the significantly smaller Creux Harbour. Herm is accessible, year-round, by either Herm Seaway Express or Herm Trident. There were 463,530 passenger sea movements in 2002.

Internal:

Air

Road:
On the island of Guernsey there is public bus service, run by Island Coachways for the Environment Department. It is not heavily used, as 61.7% of students, and 75.3% of workers, travelled to their daily destination by car or van. Rental cars and taxis also readily available. Guernsey has 488 km (303 miles) of roads. In 2003 there were 48,132 commercial and private vehicles, and 5,435 motorcycles, taxed for road use. There are no cars on Sark. As such, tourists must travel by foot, bicycle, or horse-drawn carriage. The only automobiles permitted on the island are tractors. Vehicles are also prohibited on Herm.

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:
N/A

Energy Policy:
Guernsey Electricity has recently begun investing in tide power, which analysts suggest has the potential to turn the Bailiwick into a leading net exporter of energy within Europe. Since 2000 Guernsey has been connected to the European grid via France allowing the Island to import electricity in addition to generating its own. Until 2000, 100% of the electricity consumed on the Island was produced on Guernsey, over the last four years however this figure has fallen as low as 13% in 2003, rising back up to 20% in 2004.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
2003 62 0 0 0 310 0 0 0 0 0

UP

Official Currency:
Guernsey pound (GP)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Guernsey is home to a modern and well-developed banking and insurance industry. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey a popular tax haven.

Financial Services:
The Channel Islands are known for their well-developed international banking and finance sector. Guernsey is a major centre for captive insurance companies. The Financial Services Commission regulates its finance industry.

Communications/E-Commerce:
There is a strong media presence on Guernsey. Located on the main island is BBC Radio Guernsey, Island FM (commercial radio), The Guernsey Evening Press and Star (as well as its fellow Guernsey Press Company publication, The Guernsey Globe, which is a free weekly newssheet), and Channel Television, which operates studios in Guernsey (although it is based on Jersey). Alderney has its own publication, the Alderney Journal, which is published every 2 weeks, and the volunteer-operated Quay FM, which operates seasonally. Postal services in the Bailiwick are operated by Guernsey Post, which gained independence from the British Post Office in 1969. The telecommunications system is well developed. Cable & Wireless Guernsey is the sole provider of landlines, having purchased the government-owned Guernsey Telecom in 2002. Other telecommunication companies are present, providing mobile, Internet, and business services.

Public Ownership:
Government controls the post office and the local airports. Guernsey is open to foreign investment, a factor the financial sector is reliant upon.

Land Use:
Freehold – private land, ownership transferable. The notable exception to this is feudal Sark, in which the Seigneur controls the land. La Société Guernesiaise holds 63.5 hectares of nature reserves; the Guernsey National Trust holds 13.5 hectares of land in reserves. The States of Guernsey owns, or is responsible for managing, most uncultivated land on the island. This does not equate nature reserve status, but does impact biodiversity significantly with land holdings many times the size of La Société’s. The Alderney Wildlife Trust aims to protect and preserve the island’s wildlife and native habitat, and has two nature reserves covering approximately 100 hectares.

Agriculture/Forestry:
Tomatoes, greenhouse flowers, sweet peppers, eggplants, Guernsey cattle.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Maritime claims: 3 nautical miles; Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nautical miles; The Bailiwick is responsible for patrolling its own waters. The chief enforcement vehicle is the Leopardess, which is an 18.5 m aluminium vessel capable of a top speed of 26 knots.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
Diversification of economy. In 2002 the Guernsey Board of Industry acknowledged that there was a danger with over-reliance on the finance sector. It consequently announced a strategy to turn the island into a major Information Technology/e-commerce centre. Importation of skilled labour. Due to the island’s size, as well as a low population growth policy, there is a need to recruit workers in certain areas, such as nurses, from abroad. As a major finance centre, the Bailiwick of Guernsey must be vigilant in maintaining tight regulations over the industry. This became especially important in the post-2001 world, in which the issue of terrorist money being funnelled to offshore financial sectors gained considerable attention.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Saint Peter Port

Political System:
Parliamentary democracy. No ministerial system; administration of public services handled by Committees, which are accountable to the legislature. The capital city is Saint Peter Port. Guernsey Government: States of Deliberation: is the legislature on Guernsey. It meets monthly, and is headed by the Chief Minister (also serves as the Bailiff in the Royal Court, which oversee Legal matters for the government). The Chief Minister is elected by the members of the States of Deliberation. The States of Deliberation is composed of 45 Deputies, who are elected from the island’s various ridings. The States meets monthly. Island affairs are overseen by a variety of committees. A Policy Council, composed of 10 Deputies, is in charge of forming the government’s direction. Although Alderney has its own legislature, it sends 2 representatives (with voting rights) to the States of Guernsey to represent its interests. States of Alderney: consists of an elected President and 10 States members. Meeting once a month, the President and members are unpaid positions. Three committees largely run daily operations: Policy and Finance, General Services, and Building and Development Control. Chief Pleas: is the legislative body of Sark. It is composed of the “owners” of the islands 40 tenements, as well as 12 Deputies of the People. The Chief Pleas meets 3 times a year, unless circumstances demand additional meetings. Meetings are chaired by the Seneschal (or Deputy Seneschal), and the Seigneur (or his Deputy) must be present. The Seneschal is appointed by the Seigneur, with approval from the Lieutenant Governor. The Guernsey Royal Court has the constitutional right to annul laws deemed unreasonable, and to direct Chief Pleas in procedural matters. Justice System: Guernsey maintains a separate legal system from that in England, although based on the same principles. There are 3 levels of court: Juvenile, Magistrate, and the Royal Court. The Royal Court is overseen by the Bailiff and Deputy Bailiff, and has unlimited jurisdiction over criminal and civil matters. Jurors are 6 Jurats, who are elected, well-respected members of the community. Appeals go to the Channel Island Courts of Appeal, while final appeals, rarely utilized, go to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. The Court of Alderney handles civil matters. Cases are heard in front of 6 Jurats and the Chairman. Appeals are made to the Royal Court of Guernsey, The Court on Sark is the Court of the Seneschal. It handles all civil matters, and criminal cases where the total fine does not exceed £400 and/or imprisonment beyond 2 months. Appeals go to the Royal Court.

Political Parties:
There are no political parties in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. All candidates run as independents. Elections: Elections for the States of Guernsey’s 45 Deputies are held every four years. Alderney has staggered elections every second year in which half – 5 – of the members stand for election. Terms are four years. The Chief Pleas on Sark holds elections for the 12 Deputies of the People every 3 years.

Important Legislation:
Financial Services Commission (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 1987 Established the regulatory body which oversees the Bailiwick of Guernsey finance sector. Trusts (Guernsey) Law 1989 Governs trusts established in Guernsey. Criminal Justice (Fraud Investigation) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 1991 Most important legislation for investigating alleged or suspected economic crime. Enables law officers to force person under question to answer questions or provide information, such as documents, on any matter relevant to investigation. Banking Supervision (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 1994 Framework of banking in Guernsey, under which all banks register. It has 3 main objectives: to protect depositors, to protect Guernsey’s reputation as an international banking centre, and to protect Guernsey’s economic interests. Money Laundering (Disclosure of Information) (Guernsey) Law, 1995 Facilitates disclosures by anyone to law officers, police, customs, or Financial Services Commission when suspicion or belief of money derived from criminal actions. In cases where disclosures break professional confidence, this law protects individual. The Charter: The relationship between Guernsey and the UK is not documented in any formal constitutional document, but rather through convention and historical processes. The most recent statement on this relationship is found in Part XI of Volume 1 of 1973’s Report of the Royal Commission on the Constitution (commonly referred to as the Kilbrandon Report).

Principal Taxes:
All islands in the Bailiwick have a flat income tax of 20% for companies and individuals, except Sark and Jethou, which have no income tax. No separate corporate tax. There are no capital gains, inheritance, capital transfer, value added, or general withholding taxes in the Bailiwick.

Associated Power:
a possession of the British Crown

Citizenship:
Guernsey is a possession of the British Crown; however, it is not part of the United Kingdom, or the European Union. The United Kingdom handles defence, international representation, and international affairs, for which Guernsey pays an annual contribution. The United Kingdom is ultimately responsible for good government in Guernsey, meaning that in the event of a failure in administration of justice or civil order, residual prerogative powers of the Crown could be used to intervene in internal affairs. However, according to long-standing convention it only passes legislation relating to the Guernsey with the consent of the island’s government.

Paradiplomacy:
Treaties ratified by the United Kingdom are typically on behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of its overseas territories, including the Crown Dependencies that wish to be included. Acts of Parliament (UK) do not normally apply to Guernsey. Guernsey is not a member of the European Union, nor does it have associate status. Its relationship with the European Community is governed by Article 299 (6)(c) of the Treaty establishing the EC and Protocol 3 of the United Kingdom’s Act of Accession to the Community in 1972. This means Guernsey is part of EU customs territory, so common customs tariffs, levies, and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between Guernsey and non-member countries. Is free movement of industrial and agricultural products between Guernsey and EU, but no free movement of services, capital, or persons. European Community law has very limited direct application to Guernsey. Neither contributes nor benefits from European Community funds; is not subject to EC measures on taxation.


HUMAN RESOURCES

Population (Guernsey, by year): 59,087 (2001); 58,681 (1996); 58,867 (1991); Population (Alderney): 2,000 (1981); Population (Herm): 50 (approximate, year round); Population (Sark): 604 (1981).

2001
Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Guernsey 63 59,087 %
Herm 2 50 %
Sark 9 604 %

Population (Guernsey, by age): <15: 10,300;15-64: 40,141; >64: 9,366 (2001).

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2001 10300 0 0 0 9,366
2007 9698 0 0 44,195 11,680

UP

Migration:
Between 1996-2002, total net migration to Guernsey was +647. (2007 est.) 3.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Crude Birth Rate:
2007 0.865%
2004 9.16%

Life Expedctancy:
80.17 years (2004 est.).total population: 80.53 years; male: 77.53 years female: 83.64 years (2007 est.)

Crude Death Rate:
2004 9.87%
2007 1.007%

Ethnicity:
British and Norman-French descent

Class Division:
n/a

Languages:
English (official), Guernsey Norman-French (fluently spoken by 2% of population, and understood fully by 3%; however, it appears to be a dying language, with 70% of fluent speakers over the age of 64).

Religion:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Congregational, Methodist.

Literacy:
 200-2004 = 100%

Education System:
School attendance is mandatory for those aged 5-15, although the upper age limit will increase to 16 in the 2008-2009 school year. The Guernsey Education Department is responsible for overseeing education throughout the Bailiwick, with the singular exception of the island of Sark, which operates its own schools. The department oversees 10 primary schools (ages 4-11), 3 infant schools (ages 4-7), 2 junior schools (7-11), 4 secondary schools (ages 11-16), 1 all-age school in Alderney, 1 small primary school in Herm, and a co-educational Grammar School (ages 11-18). The Department also operates 3 special needs schools and the College of Further education. Currently the Department is in the process of reorganizing much of its system. There are 3 private schools operating in Guernsey: the Ladies’ College, Blanchelande Girls’ College, and Elizabeth College (for boys). Students are required to attend the local primary or secondary school except when the pupil is identified as having excellent academic abilities, in which case the student may be sent to the Grammar School or provided a special place in one of the private colleges, or if desired, Roman Catholic children may attend one of the two designated Roman Catholic primary schools. The government does not operate any pre-schools, although there are a number of privately run pre-schools and nurseries in operation. There is no university on Guernsey; however, the government does operate the College of Further Education, which provides an assortment of vocational classes. The College, located in St. Peter Port, also operates the Guernsey Business School, which offers classes in business management, accounting and finance, and information technology.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv
20
11

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
2005
0
4,456
4,566
0
885


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:
As the Bailiwick is independent of the United Kingdom, there is no National Health Service. There is a compulsory Specialist Health Insurance Scheme for all residents of Guernsey, Alderney, Herm and Jethou, which covers acute private specialist services. Beyond that, residents must either have private insurance or pay for coverage out of pocket. The aforementioned insurance program does not cover Sark residents. The government of Sark runs its own private insurance scheme that residents are encouraged to join. Sark is serviced by 1 resident general practitioner, but all other services, including dentistry, require a trip to Guernsey. Guernsey has 3 private general practices, 1 specialist practice (covering general surgery, general medicine, obstetrics, and orthopaedics), and three hospitals. Prince Elizabeth Hospital has over 200 beds and covers a wide range of services ranging from emergency to intensive care. Castel Hospital handles day hospital placements, mental health services, and occupational therapy. King Edward VII Hospital has 100 beds, handles physical rehabilitation. (1999 - 93 Physicians)


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 The Channel Islands [Jersey and Guernsey] became part of the Duchy of Normandy in 911. When Duke William (William the Conqueror) became King William I of England in 1066 they became subject to the English Crown. As such, the islands are British territories, although they are not part of the United Kingdom. Along with Jersey, Guernsey has the distinction of being one of the only British territories to endure Nazi rule during the Second World War. The island emerged as a leading offshore finance sector, beginning in 1963, when the first merchant bank opened.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:
National Holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

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