Jurisdiction Project

Jeju

Overview:
Once upon a time, the Jeju Island was an independent kingdom; it is now the smallest province but biggest island of South Korea. Jeju island has its very own and distinctive culture from the mainland of South Korea. Jeju-do is the only special self-governing province of South Korea, situated on and coterminous with the country's largest island. Jejudo or Jeju-do can refer to either the island or the government administrative unit.

Territory:
Jeju is a volcanic island formed by activity from the 3rd Cenozoic period to the 4th period, 2 million years ago. An extinct volcano with a 700m diameter crater lies at the top of Halla mountain located in the center of island.

Location:
Jeju Island's location is southeast of South Korea in the Korea Strait, southwest of Jeollanam-do province.

Latitude and Longitude:
33˚11'27"N-33˚33'50"N in latitude and 126˚08'43"E-126˚58'20" in longitude;

Time Zone:
GMT +9

Total Land Area:
1848

EEZ:
200

Climate:
Jeju Island has a mild oceanic climate throughout the year with the smallest annual temperature range in South Korea and four distinct seasons. The temperature for the hottest summer months averages no more than 34.3℃ and no less than -3.2℃ for winter. Half of the summer is rainy, and the winter is fairly dry.

Natural Resources:
Nutmeg and coral reefs are some of the natural resources on the island.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:

Per Capita GDP:
2003 10,576.00 USD
2000 9,051.00 USD
2002 9,925.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2001 16.1% 16.8% 67.1%
2002 16.4% 16.2% 67.4%
2003 16.2% 18.5% 65.3%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2005 23.1% 4.4% 72.5%

External Aid/Remittances:
Jeju do from time to time receives development assistance from mainland South Korea; these funds are to be used for project and program aid, technical co-operation, contribution to NGOs, administrative costs and other purposes.

Growth:
Jeju economy had led the local economy in Korea through the rapid growth of tourism industry and tangerine industry until late 1980s. However, the Asian financial crisis, economic stagnation, excessive output of farm products including tangerine, market opening due to WTO policy and liberalization of overseas trips since late 1990s have been slowing down the growth. Accordingly, the gross regional domestic product of Jeju per capita dropped to 80% of national domestic product and the household debt ratio was ranked top in Korea. The relative quality of residents' life has been gradually aggravated. Nevertheless, tourism industry is still one of the most important economic pillars of Jeju Island.

Labour Force:
2005 285,300

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2005 1.8%

Industry:
Fishing, tourism, tangerine planting, green tea, semi-tropical fruites, convention, electronics, telecommunications, and shipbuilding are some industries in Jeju Island.

Niche Industry:
Tangerine planting, (planted area: 22,048 ha, total output: 596 M/T, revenue including expenses: 6,100 million won, Convention (International Convention Center Jeju), wind farm, also eco-tourism.

Tourism:
Tourism industry of Jeju is the key industry leading the economic growth of Jeju, due to the favorable geographical conditions and gifted tourism resources. Tourism industry maintained very high growth trend in 1970s and 1980s, but became dramatically stagnated from 1990s. Furthermore, as tourists' destinations replacing Jeju in Korea and abroad had been rapidly increasing, tourism industry of Jeju faced the serious turning point. Lack of facilities or programs that were interesting or enjoyed was also one of reasons to reduce the number of tourists to Jeju. Although Jeju is the traditional tourists' destination focusing on sightseeing, the environmental damages became one of the worst causes weakening the identity of Jeju tourism. Jeju Free International City Development Plan was set as one of ways to activate the Jeju economy and increase the quality of residents' life. For implementing the plan, Jeju Free International City Development Center was established. One of major directions of Jeju Free International City Development Plan is to develop the unique tourism goods of Jeju highlighting the ecological and cultural values of Jeju by attracting domestic and foreign private investment. Jeju envisions cultivating Jeju as the tourism and recreation city in Northeast Asia by combining existing industries with new driving industries as part of a 5-year regional innovation and development plan set in 2004. New driving industries include tourism, health/beauty, biology, digital contents, eco-agriculture and bioengineering industries. Among 7 key projects that are carried by Jeju Free International City Development Center, three key projects that purchased lands and had been intensively developed are Yerae-Dong recreation-oriented residential park integrating residential,leisure and medical functions; high-tech science and technology park utilizing biological resources and pure environment of Jeju; and ecology, mythology and history park revitalizing the ecological and cultural values of Jeju. These three key projects correspond to the contents of new driving industries included in 5-year regional innovation and development plan currently pursued by Jeju. In 2004, the total number of tourist visits to Jeju Island was nearly 5 million; there were 329,000 foreign visitors. Total revenue generated from tourism sector was 1,678.7 billion won.

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Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 140,977,000.00 USD (2005)
From Eu: 48549000
Import Partners (EU:) France, The U.K, Italy, Germany, The Netherland, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Ireland, Poland, Spain, Greece, Sweden, Finland;
Partners Outside EU: Japan, China, the United States, India, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Taiwan, New Zealand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Isreal, Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico, Chile, Myanmar, Nigeria, Bahamas, Turkey, Monaco, Tunisia, Argentina;
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports 63281000 USD (2005)
To Eu: 193000
Export Partners: Portugal, United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy;
Partners Outside EU:: Japan, Chile, China, Philippines, the United States, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Canada, Guam, Russia, Malaysia, Algeria, Indoneisa, N. Marianas, Mongolia, Vietnam, Libya, Morocco, Sri Lanka, Australia, Kazakhstan, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Mexico, New Zealand, Myanmar, Suriname;
Export Partners:
Main Imports: Electrical and electronic machineery, crude petroleum, and machinery and equipment, chemicals and chemical compounds, and iron and steel products.
Main Exports: Manufactured products 54.1%, marine products 28.3%, agricultural products 11.1%, livestock products 6.3%, and forestry products 0.2%. Machinery and precision equipments, electrical goods and electonics, textile and apparel.


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports: 1
Jeju International Airport has a total of 21 direct airlines (13 domestic, 9 international), it links major cities and employ 130 aircraft. Moreover, Jeju Airport can handle 7.64 million passengers a year. There are 6 flights to Tokyo in a week, 4 flights to Osaka, 2 flights to Beijing, and 3 flights to Hong Kong. 94 percent of travellers who visit Jeju Island arrive by air. Jeju International Airport will be expanded every year until 2020 with public funds totaling 449.3 Billion KRW in accordance with the 2nd Long-term Airport Development Plan. As the first phase, by 2010 the major facilities will be extended to permit 177,000 landings and take-offs per annum and 18.64 million passengers per annum.

Number of Main Ports: 2
Jeju Port and Seogwipo Port. Jeju port has 6 direct sailing routes and employs 12 ships, which weight between 600 to 5,600 tons. Jeju port operates ships 6 times a week between major local ports including Busan and Incheon with a capacity of carrying 2,401,000 passengers a year. 6 percent of total travellers who visit the island arrive by sea. Jeju Port, also located in the downtown of Jeju City, has played its role as a logistics center and a tourism support center in Jeju since its opening in July 1927. Jeju Port is equipped with rapid administrative support systems such as PORT-MIS (port management information system) and PTMS (port transportation information) to allow the flexible processing of incoming and outgoing ships and cargos. In accordance with the Jeju Free International City Project, Jeju Inner Port juggles the compound functions handling commodities and mandarins, while Jeju Outer Port has been developed as the international tour port, in consideration of the surrounding scenery. Seogwipo Port is the key port for cargo transportation in the southern area of Jeju. It carries on the functions of an outpost of fishery as the main port for fishing boats shipping to the neighboring seas.

Internal:

Air
There is no Jeju based airline; however, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines serve as the most important airlines accessing Jeju.

Road:
Total length of roads on Jeju Island is 3,200.24 km, 453.94 km is national road, 299.6 km is regional road, 35.4 km is local roads, 264.2 km is regional roads, and 2,446.7 km is city, county, and province roads. And pavement is 2,645.34 km.

Sea:
Ferry services are provided for travallers from Busan, Incheon, Ulsan, Yeosu, Mokpo, Gunsan, Chungmu, Wando and Chuja.

Other Forms of Transportation:
Private vehicles, buses, bicycle

Economic Zones:
Jeju Free International City (JFIC) is a Special Economic Zone. The term, special economic zone, has many meanings. 'Free trade zone' and 'free tariff zone' in Korea can be included in 'a special economic zone' in the broad sense. At present, JFIC is the only special zone in Korea. The Korean government and Jeju province started to discuss the possibility of JFIC in earnest in 1998 and the master plan was made at the end of 2001. Since April, 2002, 'The Special Acts of JFIC has come into effect. The JFIC covers the whole of Jeju Island measuring 1,846 sq km in area.

Energy Policy:
The demand for electric power on Jeju is significantly greater than the supply. Power from mainland plants makes up the difference. The island's power-grid is connected to the mainland by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju, a 101 kilometers long HVDC submarine cable connection between Haenam and the island Jeju in South Korea, which went in service in 1996. The connection consists of two monopolar 180kV-lines with a maximum transmission power of 300 megawatts. However, the majority of the island's electric power needs are met by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968. As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation, or KEPCO.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
2004 570,000 420,000 0 150,000 462,735 72,079 123,638 0 223,226 0

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Official Currency:
South Korean won

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions: 8
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies: 54

 8 major banks in Jeju, (Cho Hung Bank, Citibank, Woori Bank, Industrial bank of Korea, Korea Exchange Bank, Korea First Bank, Jeju Bank, and Shinhan Bank); 54 insurance companies.

Financial Services:
Most of the financial institutions in Jeju provide various financial services to customers. For example services for individual customers, family finance or private organizations, and personalized service like mutual funds, portfolio management, guaranteed investments and so on.

Communications/E-Commerce:
Before the year 2000, when the Seoul government changed the official Romanization of Hangul, Jeju-do was spelled "Cheju-do". Almost all written references to the island before 2000 use that spelling. The Revised Romanization uses no non-alphabetic symbols except very limited, often optional, use of the hyphen. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language to eliminate difficulty of entering, or rather the ease of ignoring, diacritics on computers and – more importantly – rationalize Korean language with the plain ASCII text of internet domain names. South Korea now officially uses this system as of 2000. Road signs and textbooks were required to follow these rules as soon as possible, at a cost estimated by the government to be at least US$20 million. All road signs, names of railway and subway stations on line maps and signs have been changed. Telephone subscribers(2004): total 240,293; business 76,291; residence 164,002; Post Offices 36; postal agencies 23; others 3.

Public Ownership:
Until comparatively recently South Korea operated a mixed economic system. On the one hand, the country adhered to the basic tenets of private enterprise and a market economy; on the other hand, it followed a highly visible policy of government intervention. Through planning, direct or indirect ownership and control of enterprises and financial institutions, regulation of foreign exchange, and the implementation of appropriate monetary and fiscal policies, the government played a crucial role in making market adjustments and maximizing incentives in pursuit of the fulfillment of its desired economic, social, political and cultural objective. The 1990s, witnessed significant progress towards privatization and away from ‘command capitalism’. The reformist thrust of government economic policy was underlined by renewed emphasis on the need for greater efficiency, improved labour productivity and enhanced competitiveness in order to meet the demands of globalization.

Land Use:
The sea coast area (less than 200m above sea level) is 1,013.5 sq km. It occupies 54.9% of the whole area and is mainly used for farm land or residential areas. The mid mountainous area (200-500m above sea level) is 496.98㎢. It occupies 26.9% of the whole area and is mainly meadow or idle land. The low mountainous area of 500-1000 m above sea level is 253.34 sq km. It occupies 13.7% of the whole area and is mainly woods, mushroom-raising land and tourist sites. An alpine region of 1000 m above sea level is 81.77 sq km. It occupies 4.5% of the whole Island area which is being protected by the designation as a national park.

Agriculture/Forestry:
Farm households on Jeju Island are 40,329, and population employed is 136,208 persons. Income per household is 25,963 thousand won where the national average is 20,494 thousand won. Finally the total land in agriculture is 56,812ha. Mandarin orange production on the island is one of the major agricultural productions. Land under cultivation is 25,860ha, engaged households for this crop production is 36,212, and the total production is 544 thousand metric tons, which comprises 25 percent of national total fruit production. Nevertheless, the slump of citrus prices has result a 35 percent decrease of citrus farmers.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Jeju Island has a long coastline, and fishing remains important for its contribution to local diet livehood and exports. Total number of households involved in fishing is 6,844; population employed in this field is 24,163 persons. There are 2,731 vessels, and the production of 2004 was 53,192 M/T, among that, fish 40,828M/T, mollusks 4,710 M/T, seaweeds 7,544 M/T, and others is 649 M/T.

Marine Life:
Shellfish, abalone, seaweed, various species of soft coral, sea urchins.

Critical Issues:
Citrus price slumps is a critical issue in Jeju. Since most farmers in Jeju grow citrus, therefore the slump in price has greatly affects the people of Jeju. Overproduction is one of the reasons that cause this crisis, to reduce the output of citrus, the government is making an effort to close down some citrus farms and impose a sabbatical year for citrus production. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Korea & Chile which was ratified by the National Assembly is another cause of this problem. Because of the low customs and in nine or ten years it is likely that the custom tax will disappear altogether. Therefore customers would probably consume cheaper fruits like grapes from Chile instead of citrus from the island. And this is worsened by the fact that grapes and citrus are harvested at the same time of a year, from November to April. Another one of the most critical issues in Jeju Island is the environmental issue. Jeju Gotjawal are special places in Jeju do, they are old-growth forests on the island. With the blossom of tourism industry in the recent years, and tremendous industrial development, the damage to Gotjawal is devastating. The importance of protecting Gotjawal is can not be ignored, because Gotjawal retain a lot of underground water and are very effective in keeping warmth and maintaining arable land.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Jeju City.

Political System:
Politics of South Korea takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Under the constitution of the Sixth Republic (in October 1987), executive power is held by the president, who is directly elected for one term of five years by universal suffrage. The president appoints and governs with the assistance of the State Council (cabinet), led by the prime minister. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly (Kuk Hoe), popularly elected for a four-year term. The assembly has 273 members. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and comprises a Supreme Court, appellate courts, and a Constitutional Court.

Political Parties:
Democratic Labor Party or DLP [KWON Young-ghil, interim chairman]; Democratic Party or DP [HAHN Hwa-kap, chairman]; Grand National Party

Important Legislation:
Special Act on Jeju International Free City: To ensure that any foreigner may enter without a visa, and any foreigner so entered may move to other regions by obtaining a permit from the Minister of Justice except for the case as otherwise stipulated by the Minister of Justice only for Jeju-do. To ensure that the administrative agencies shall provide foreign language services in accepting and handling official documents in order to facilitate the convenience of the foreign investors. To ensure that the price in the ordinary transaction made within Jeju-do on a certain scale or smaller may be paid directly by means of the foreign exchange between the parties to such transaction in accordance with the Foreign Exchange Transactions Act, in order to improve foreigners' living environment. To ensure that the Jeju high-tech science and technology complex may be created for a fosterage of the high-tech knowledge industry, such as the biological industry, and in the mean time, with regard to the free trade zone to be crated in Jeju-do, a location of domestic-invested enterprises is permitted, and to ensure that the corporate tax and income tax, etc. are reduced or exempted for the said located enterprises. To ensure that the corporate tax, income tax and customs, and the rental fees, etc. of the national and public properties are reduced or exempted for the domestic and foreign investors by introducing the system of Jeju investment promotion zone for inducing the investment in the tourist industries. To ensure that the customs, value-added tax, special consumption tax, liquor tax, etc. are reduced, exempted or refunded for the goods bought at the designated duty-free shops and carried outside Jeju-do by the domestic persons travelling Jeju-do. To ensure that the taxes such as the special consumption tax and the additional charge, etc. under the National Sports Promotion Act are reduced or exempted for the act of admission to a golf course within Jeju-do. To ensure that the permission for casino business may be granted to a foreign investor in whose case the amount of investment in tourism business is not less than five hundred million US Dollars, which, including himself, are not linked to any crime or other illegal act, notwithstanding the provisions of the Tourism Promotion Act. To prepare the basis for establishing a general settlement organ under the control of the Do governor to deal swiftly and in bulk with the business affairs relating to development project execution approval and the civil petitions to be directly treated in relation to foreign investment. Labour standards act: Chapter 1 General Provisions provides that the Labor Standards Act applies in general only to work-places where at least five workers are employed, and only certain provisions of this Act apply to work-places where no more than four workers are employed. Chapter 3 prescribes matters relevant to payment of wages, for example, that wages shall be paid directly to workers. Chapter 4 sets the legal work hour per week at forty hours and prescribes paid vacation per week and per year to which a worker is entitled. Chapter 5 provides for employee protection for minors and women by, for example, generally prohibiting employment of workers under the age of fifteen and requiring maternity leave for women. Copyright: In Chapter 1, the terms relating to the copyright, such as the literary works, reproduction, distribution, etc. are defined, and with regard to the foreign literary works, they are protected in accordance with the treaties joined or concluded by our country, but with regard to the literary works of the country that does not protect the Korean literary works, the commensurate restrictions may be made on the basis of reciprocity principle. Immigration: A foreigner who fails to meet the entry requirements, such as possession of a valid passport or visa, due to an unavoidable circumstance may be granted provisional permission for entry, with such conditions as restrictions on residence attached thereto, while the decision as to whether the entry shall be permitted is being made. In order to prevent unlawful employment of foreigners and to establish their orderly sojourns in Korea, unlawful employers shall be punished.

Principal Taxes:
There are three kinds of taxes in Korea, national, provincial and city taxes. National taxes consist of education and income taxes. Provincial taxes are acquisition and registration taxes. City taxes are composed of resident, property, and automobile taxes. Foreign resident must pay same taxes as Koreans. Resident Tax: This tax is levied on any individual who resides in the city as of August 1st every year. Automobile tax: Any Individual who owns an automobile in the city must pay the tax twice a year as of June 1st and December 1st. If the tax is paid all at once, the tax payer will receive 10% discount. If a individual buys an automobile in the city, provincial tax, acquisition and registration taxes, are also levied. Acquisition tax is 2% of acquisition cost and the amount of registration tax can be calculated by multiplying acquisition cost and tax rate. The owner of an automobile must have insurance and a fine will be levied if the driver is not insured. Aggregated Land Tax: Individual who owns lands is levied as of June 1st every year. Property Tax: Property tax is levied to an individual who owns a building as of May 1st every year. National and provincial taxes might be levied along with city taxes

Associated Power:
South Korea

Citizenship:
Korean

Paradiplomacy:
Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Asian Development Bank (AsDB), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), World Health Organization (WHO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Labour Organization (ILO), World Trade Organization (WTO).


HUMAN RESOURCES

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Jeju 1,848 560,000 100%

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2005 118239 73,125 216,678 75,877 55,443

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Migration:

Crude Birth Rate:
2005 10.08%

Life Expedctancy:
2005: total 76.85; male 73.42; female 80.57.

Crude Death Rate:
2005 6.26%

Ethnicity:
Homogeneous (except a small number of Chinese)

Class Division:
Jeju do’s spectacular economic development has transformed Jeju from a largely agricultural society into a semi-industrialized province of South Korea in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this has caused many Jeju islanders quickly converting themselves working in the manufacturing and service industry. The gap occurred between the young and the older generation in general.

Languages:
The dialect spoken in Jeju is classified as a different language by some Korean linguists. The Jeju dialect preserves some archaic features that can also be found in Middle Korean. Worldwide, there are around 80 million Korean speakers. Korean, English is widely taught in junior high and senior high.

Religion:
No affiliation 46%, Christian 26%, Buddhist 26%, Confucianist 1%, other 1%.

Literacy:
 (2005) Total 97.9%; male 99.2%; female 96.6%.

Education System:
On Jeju Island, like other parts of South Korea, the six-year primary education is compulsory by law. Followed by three-year junior high school and three-year senior high school. From there, the graduated students have the choice of either go to professional schools or the four-year university. In one academic year, there are two semesters, and one of them begins in March. Kindergartens help the children preparing for the next level of schooling. Children attend for three hours a day. The purpose of elementary schools is to prepare children with a basic education to help them become sound citizens of the country. Schools run for over 220 days per year with Korean, Math, Music, Arts, Science, Physical Education, and Practical Skills making up the curriculum.

Total Pre-schools:(2004) 115
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools: 73
Total Professional Schools 3
Universities: 3

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
2004
5,540
52,359
41,550
0
33,089


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3
2004
276
2,134
0
0
2,628
0
764


73 Secondary Schools:(42 of them are junior high schools, and 31 of them are senior high schools); 3 Professional Schools: Jeju College of Technology, Cheju Tourism College, Cheju Halla College; 3 universities, Cheju National University, Jeju National University of Education and Gyeongsang National University.

Medical Services:
In Jeju Island, there are six general hospitals, (emergency centers at two of the local hospitals are available 24 hours of emergency patients including holidays.), four private health centers, 203 public health centers, two midwifery centers, 104 dental clinics, and 56 oriental clinics. In addition, there are 846 physicians, 209 pharmacists, 367 technicians, 126 dentists, 63 doctors of oriental medicine, 9 midwives and 388 medical.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Jeju-do was an independent country called Tamna until it became a protectorate of Silla in 662. In 938, after the fall of Silla, Tamna became a protectorate of Goryeo. In 1105 Tamna lost its autonomy and became a province of Goryeo. It was King Euijong of Goryeo who changed the island's name from Tamna to Jeju. In 1271, Jeju became the base of the Sambyeolcho Rebellion against the Mongols. After Sambyeolcho was defeated in1273, the Mongols placed Jeju under direct rule, and it became Goryeo territory again in 1367. When Korea was colonized by Japan in 1910, Jeju became known as Saishu, which is the Japanese reading of the hanja for Jeju. After the defeat of the Japanese, Jeju became an official part of the new Republic of Korea. Jeju was then a part of Jeolla until 1946, when it became a province of its own. In a series of events over several years, known as the Jeju massacre, tens of thousands of people were killed. The cause is still disputed. Historically, the people of Jeju Island have been the victim of discrimination due to its location and isolation. The history of Jeju has been largely omitted from South Korean history books and textbooks.

Referenda:
Jeju Province is divided into two cities ("Si" or "Shi") and two counties ("Gun"). The two cities are further divided into thirty-one neighbourhoods ("Dong"), while the two counties are divided into seven towns ("Eup") and five districts ("Myeon"). The seven towns and five districts are in turn divided into 551 villages ("Ri"). In 2005, Jeju residents approved a referendum to merge these entities into one, which will be directly administered by the provincial government.

Recent Significant Events:
The Korean government and Jeju province started to discuss the possibility of JFIC in earnest in 1998 and the master plan was made at the end of 2001. Since April, 2002, 'The Special Acts of JFIC has come into effect. Jejudo, the largest island south off the Korean Peninsula, was named as the "Island of World Peace" on Thursday (Jan. 27, 2005) to promote peace in Northeast Asia. Jeju Island will serve as a hub for exchange, cooperation and research for world peace. It will also act as a buffer zone, preventing and resolving international conflicts and disputes. Mayor Kim Yung-Hoon of Jeju City formed a sisterhood relation with a French city Rouen, a tourist city in northern France, Jeju City announced Oct. 13, 2004. The two cities expanded exchanges in tour and travel, arts and culture, sports and other fields. They also exchanged their employees for training. Kim Tae-hwan of the opposition Grand National Party(GNP) was elected as new governor of Jeju Island Province when the GNP emerged victorious by winning three of the four mayoral and gubernatorial posts in by-elections on June 5, 2004.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
Because of the relative isolation of the island, the people of Jeju Island have developed a culture that is distinct from that of mainland Korea. Jeju is home to thousands of local legends. Perhaps the most distinct cultural artifact is the ubiquitous harubang ("stone grandfather") carved from a block of lava. Another distinct aspect in Jeju-do, is the matriarchal family structures, found especially in Udo and Mara, but also present in the rest of the province. The best-known example of this is the haenyo (literally "sea women"), who are often the heads of family. They earn their living from diving to great depths without scuba gear in order to harvest abalone, conch, and a myriad of other marine products.

Sources:

Jeju do government website: http://www.jeju.go.kr/jejunew/index7.php Jeju-do Center http://www.jdcenter.com/contents/sub.php?mid=EN01010300 http://www.nso.go.kr/eng/searchable/main.html Invest Korea, Jeju do http://jeju.investkorea.org/templet/type0/1/read.jsp Wikipedia encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeju-do#endnote_power1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_South_Korea Email interview with South Korea Statistic Bureau Officer, Eunjin Kang on January 19, 2006 “Rgional Surveys of the World, “The Far East and Australasia 2004”, 35th edition, Europa Pubications. Jeju Times http://jejutimes.net/JT/?url=/JT/db/read.php?idx=402 THE EUROPA WORLD YEAR BOOK 2003, 44TH EDITION, Europa Publications, Taylor & Francis Group. Korean Energy Economics Institute: http://www.keei.re.kr/web_keei/en_kerm.nsf/frame.htm?ReadForm&url=/web_keei/en_kerm.nsf/mainV/7DC297FC70F78902492570E50004661D?OpenDocument Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy http://english.mocie.go.kr/index.jsp Korea Eximbank http://www.koreaexim.go.kr/en/edcf/m03/s02_01_list.jsp The Islander - Cheju National University Campus English Magazine http://islander.cheju.ac.kr/news_view.html?time=216&type=8 Graduate institute of environmental education, national Taiwan normal university http://www.giee.ntnu.edu.tw/island/2004_ISLANDS8_proceedings/ISISA8/083%204-2-A-4-%20Kang.pdf Korea Trade: Email interview with officials from www.kita.org www.kita.net

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