Jurisdiction Project

Jersey

Overview:
The Bailiwick of Jersey is the largest of the Channel Islands. It is a British Crown territory that owes its allegiance to the Sovereign. Self-governing in internal matters, Jersey is not incorporated into the United Kingdom.

Territory:
Largest of the Channel Islands, 14.5 km. (9 mi.) x 8 km. (5 mi.). Highest elevation 143 metres.

Location:
14 miles from coast of France, 100 miles south of mainland Britain.

Latitude and Longitude:
49 15 North Latitude and 2 10 West Longitude.

Time Zone:
GMT

Total Land Area:
118

EEZ:

Climate:
Average daily temperature ranges from 6 degrees Celsius in winter to 17 degrees in July and August, when maximum temperatures are 20 to 21 degrees. Average annual rainfall is 860 millimetres.

Natural Resources:
Arable land.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2003 4,224,000,000.00 USD
2005 5,100,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2003 48,448.00 USD
2005 57,000.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2003 1.6% 8.5% 89.9%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2001 4% 10% 86%

External Aid/Remittances:

Growth:
1.86 % (1999)

Labour Force:
2004 52,775
2003 53,493
2002 53,765
2006 53,560

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2004 0.938%
2003 0.566%
2002 0.288%
2006 2.2%

Industry:
tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Niche Industry:
banking and finance

Tourism:
(2004) Three main product areas were identified as part of the marketing strategy: Walking, Floral and Heritage.

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Imports and Exports:



Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners: UK
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners: UK
Main Imports:
Main Exports: light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports: 1
International airport, 1,706 by 46 metres runway. There are regular flights to and from Guernsey and the United Kingdom. There were 1.5 million air passengers (inward and outward) in 2001, with 1.3 million from within the United Kindom.

Number of Main Ports:
There are 15 marinas on Jersey, and its close proximity to France and the United Kingdom has rendered it a favourite destination. In 2001 there were 902,000 sea passengers; 2,117 ships on Port of Jersey register.

Internal:

Air

Road:
Public buses, taxis, coach tours, and car rentals all available. This small island boasts over 560 km (350 miles) of roadway. In 2001 there were 11,645 vehicles registered, with 84% of private households owning at least one car or van.

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:
Jersey is very vulnerable to trends in global energy because of the characteristics of its energy systems: High import dependency ; Jersey imports electricity from the European grid and petroleum products arrive by tanker. Jersey is a ‘price taker’ in a global market of increasing energy costs Energy use patterns are dominated by the domestic and transport sectors, however Jersey’s main exporting industry, international financial services, uses relatively little energy There are low levels of competition in the energy market Consumer behaviour is unresponsive to rising energy costs. The goal of energy policy is to achieve ‘Secure, Affordable and Sustainable Energy’.(2007) An Energy Framework is proposed which establishes a hierarchy for action: 1. Use less – Reduce the environmental and economic consequence of energy use by simply reducing our energy demand; 2. Use less carbon-intensive fuels – These are finite in the long term and the environmental (and thus economic) costs of their use are great. The options for switching to renewably generated fuels will continue to increase as technologies become viable; 3. Use less imported energy – the exploitation of the Island’s indigenous generating capacity will give greater security and resilience in the longer term; 4. Reduce other impacts – All energy sources have environmental impacts. Where possible these impacts should be reduced by choosing the most benign options capable of servicing the energy needs of the Island; 5. Off-set residual carbon emissions – Decarbonising the economy will not happen immediately and even with vigorous progress there are likely to be residual carbon emissions. To demonstrate Jersey’s high levels of international responsibility, the Island could mitigate its unavoidable contribution to global pollution by contributing to bona fide carbon reduction projects.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
2004 0 0 0 0 630,100 0 0 0 0 0

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Official Currency:
Jersey pound (JP)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 The Channel Islands are known for their well-developed international banking and finance sector.

Financial Services:
Jersey has the largest banking sector of the Channel Islands, and it is regulated by a Financial Services Commission. Jersey is open to foreign investment, a factor the financial sector is reliant upon.

Communications/E-Commerce:
Outward and open. Government and private web sites on economy and tourism extensive. Provided in English. Government web sites highlight attracting business to the island.

Public Ownership:
Jersey maintains control over areas such as waste management, traffic and highways.

Land Use:
Freehold – private land, ownership transferable. National Trust for Jersey owns over 180 hectares, including wetlands, woodlands, coastlands, and farmland, making it the second largest landowner in Jersey after the States. Environment Department’s Planning and Environment Committee administers 3 sites, totalling in excess of 300 hectares.

Agriculture/Forestry:
In 2003, 48.9 % of Jersey land was being cultivated. There were 294 separate holdings, with the average size being 107.49 vergées. The total value of vegetable exports was £27,129,511, with the vast majority of this derived from potatoes (60% of value) and tomatoes (30% of value). Also of note is the Jersey beef and dairy industry. In 2003, 49 farms kept cattle, which produced 14,397,000 litres of milk, valued at £11,105,000. The number of dairy cows has declined 20.6% over 2 years as part of the Dairy Industry Restructuring Scheme.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Maritime claims: 3 nautical miles Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nautical miles

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Saint Helier.

Political System:
Parliamentary democracy. No ministerial system; administration of public services handled by Committees, which are accountable to the legislature. Associated Power: External affairs are handled by the United Kingdom, although Jersey is not a member of the United Kingdom. It is not fully incorporated into the European Union either. It is party to Treaty of Rome only insofar as it allows movement of goods, but not people or money. United Kingdom: Handles defence, international representation, and international affairs, for which Jersey pays an annual contribution. The United Kingdom is ultimately responsible for good government in Jersey, meaning that in the event of a failure in administration of justice or civil order, residual prerogative powers of the Crown could be used to intervene in internal affairs. However, according to long-standing convention it only passes legislation relating to the Jersey with the consent of the island’s government. Legal System: Jersey maintains a separate legal system from that in England, although based on the same principles. Final appeal, rarely utilized, is Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

Political Parties:
There are no political parties in Jersey. All candidates run as independents. Elections: Deputies are elected in each constituency every 3 years. The entire island elects senators every 6 years.

Important Legislation:
Island Planning (Jersey) Law, 1964 (as amended) Allows the government to designate areas “Sites of Special Interest,” which permits them to protect buildings or land for ecological, historical, or other reasons. Protects the environment from development, but does not specifically protect habitats or species. Treaties: Treaties ratified by the United Kingdom are typically on behalf of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of its overseas territories, including the Crown Dependencies that wish to be included. Acts of Parliament (UK) do not normally apply to Jersey.

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
British Crown

Citizenship:
British

Paradiplomacy:
Supranational Affiliation: Jersey is not a member of the European Union, nor does it have associate status. Its relationship with the European Community is governed by Article 299 (6)(c) of the Treaty establishing the EC and Protocol 3 of the United Kingdom’s Act of Accession to the Community in 1972. This means Jersey is part of EU customs territory, so common customs tariffs, levies, and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between Jersey and non-member countries. Is free movement of industrial and agricultural products between Jersey and EU, but no free movement of services, capital, or persons. European Community law has very limited direct application to Jersey. Neither contributes nor benefits from European Community funds; is not subject to EC measures on taxation.


HUMAN RESOURCES

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
0 0 %

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2001 15664 0 0 0 14,507
2007 15431 0 0 61,439 14,451

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Migration:
Net Migration: Immigration is capped so that the working population will increase by no more than 1%/year. Only those deemed capable of positively influencing the economy permitted entry. 2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Crude Birth Rate:
2004 10.04%
2007 0.902%

Life Expedctancy:
total population: 79.51 years male: 77.02 years female: 82.2 years (2007 est.)

Crude Death Rate:
2004 9.17%
2007 0.932%

Ethnicity:
Jersey (51.1%), British (34.8%). Small Portuguese/Madeiran, Irish, French segments (Census 2001).

Class Division:
An Island establishment dominates local politics. This group is composed of the economic elite (formerly the landed interest).

Languages:
English and French are the two official languages, although English is dominant. Members of the legislature may use either, although by practise business of States is conducted in English. Locals also speak Jerriais, a Norman-French dialect.

Religion:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian.

Literacy:
 The level of literacy is slightly above the United Kingdom average. For example, a 2004 study indicates 80% of Jersey students reached level 4 or better (average for 11 year olds), compared to 77% in the UK.

Education System:
Compulsory from 5-16. The States operate 23 non-fee paying primary schools, 4 non-fee paying secondary schools [ages 11-16], and 1 non-fee paying school for 14-18. The states also operate 2 fee-paying primary schools and 2 fee-paying secondary schools. There are 7 private primary schools, and 3 private secondary schools. Sixth form education is available in 5 schools (1 non-fee and 4 fee-paying).

Total Pre-schools:() 29
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools: 12
Total Professional Schools 1
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv
24
5
5
5
1
5

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


(2008) There are 22 non-fee paying primary schools, four non-fee paying secondary schools for pupils aged 11 to 16 years and one non-fee paying school for pupils aged 14 to 18 years. At the age of 14 pupils who are more academically able may transfer to this latter school. There are four schools in the Island catering for children with special needs. Each secondary school and some primary schools have further provision for children with particular needs. In addition there are two fee paying primary schools and two fee paying secondary schools in the States sector. There are five private primary schools, three private secondary schools and two private schools for 4 to 13 year olds. Post 16 education is available for pupils in five local schools and at Highlands College . Full time further education is available at Highlands College to students from the age of 16 years.

Medical Services:
2 doctors per 1,000 population. Is covered by a General Hospital.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 The Channel Islands became part of the Duchy of Normandy in 911. When Duke William (William the Conqueror) became King William I of England in 1066 they became subject to the English Crown.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

“About Jersey,” Jersey Information Board. Retrieved from http://www.jerseylegalinfo.je/Home/AboutJersey/default.asp January 24, 2005. “A Guide to Government Business involving the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man,” Department for Constitutional Affairs (UK), August 2002. Retrieved from http://www.dca.gov.uk/constitution/crown/govguide.htm December 20, 2004. Berry, Leigh Ann, “Discovering Jersey,” British Heritage, 01952633, June-July 1997, Vol. 18, Issue 5. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, December 23, 2004. “Census,” States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/census.asp December 20, 2004. “Countryside Management,” Environment Website, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.je/c_side/c_side_map.asp January 3, 2005. Ferbrache, Mark D., “Offshore Financial Centers,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 00145688, February 2001, Vol. 70, Issue 2. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, December 23, 2004. “Jersey,” CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/je.html December 20, 2004. “Jersey Economic Digest 2004,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/pdf/8268JsyEconomicDigest2004V5.pdf December 22, 2004. “Jersey Gross Value Added (GVA) and Gross National Income (GNI) 1998-2003,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/pdf/GVA_GNI_1998_2003.pdf December 22, 2004. “Jersey in figures, 2003,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/content/popular_docs/jerseyinfigures.pdf December 22, 2004. “Jersey Labour Market at June 2004,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/pdf/JerseyLabourMarketJun04.pdf December 22, 2004. “Jersey Statistical Review 2002,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey, August 2002. Retrieved from http://www.policyandresources.gov.je/content/pdf/2002StatsReview.pdf December 22, 2004. “Les Mielles,” Environmental Services Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.je/content/pdfs/allnatur/lesmiell.pdf January 3, 2005. “Minutes,” States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.statesassembly.gov.je/documents/minutes/20720-813.htm December 22, 2004. Mitchell, Austin and Prem Sikka, “Jersey: Auditors’ Liabilities versus People’s Rights,” Political Quarterly, 00323179, January-March 1999, Vol. 70, Issue 1. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, December 20, 2004. “Monthly Average Graph (British Pound, American Dollar) 2003,” x-rates.com. Retrieved from http://www.x-rates.com/d/GBP/USD/hist2003.html January 4, 2005. “Natural Environment,” National Trust for Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.nationaltrustjersey.org.je/showcase/naturalenv.asp January 3, 2005. Parishes Online. Retrieved from www.parish.gov.je/ January 4, 2004. “Registered unemployed,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/xls/total_unemployment.xls December 22, 2004. “Report on the 2001 Census,” Etat Civil Committee, States of Jersey, 22 October 2002. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/pdf/2001_Census_Report_2.pdf December 23, 2004. “States of Jersey Committees,” States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.statesassembly.gov.je/frame.asp January 24, 2005. “Statistics 2003,” Jersey Agriculture Economic Development. Retrieved from http://www.edd.gov.je/uploads/3455-1293.pdf January 10, 2005. The States of Jersey Airport. Retrieved from http://www.airport.gov.je/index.asp December 27, 2004. “The States of Jersey,” States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.statesassembly.gov.je/frame.asp December 20, 2004. This is Jersey. Retrieved from www.thisisjersey.com/ December 20, 2004. “Total employment in Jersey,” Statistics Unit, States of Jersey. Retrieved from http://www.gov.je/statistics/content/xls/total_employment.xls December 22, 2004.

Energy Policy Consultation Paper http://www.gov.je/NR/rdonlyres/3FE8D4E2-8DF9-40CA-A25A-2F5BD4D0DE44/0/PublicConsultationPaper.pdf

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