Jurisdiction Project

Macao

Overview:
The island of Macau is located in the South China Sea west of Hong Kong. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau, and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.

Territory:
Land: 25.4 sq km;
Highest elevation: 172.4 m
Reclamation statistics: total area of Macao 2004: 27.5 sq km; reclamation zone: 4.7 sq km. Total area of Macao 2005: 28.2 sq km; reclamation zone: 5.2 sq km. Total area of Macao 2006: 28.6 sq km; reclamation zone: 5.2 sq km.

Location:
Macau is located on the southeast coast of China, west of the mouth of the Pearl River. Bordering the Guangdong Province, the SAR lies 60 km from Hong Kong, 145 km from Guangzhou. Due to land reclamation along its coastline, Macao has grown in land area from 10.28 sq km in the 19th century to 28.6 sq km today, which is equal to one-fortieth of Hong Kong and one twenty-third of Singapore. Macao consists of the Macao peninsula and the two islands of Taipa and Coloane. Three bridges, Nobre de Carvalho Bridge, Friendship Bridge (Ponte da Amizade) and Sai Van Bridge, link the peninsula to Taipa, while the two islands are linked by the six-lane 2.2km Taipa-Coloane Causeway.

Latitude and Longitude:
22 10 N, 113 33 E

Time Zone:
GMT +8

Total Land Area:
25

EEZ:

Climate:
Subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers.
The weather of Macao is in general subtropical to temperate, with an average temperature of 23.0o Celsius in 2003. It is humid and rainy in spring and summer whereas in autumn and winter the relative humidity and rainfall drop. The typhoon season is from May to October, with the highest frequency from July to September.

In 2003, there were 110 rainy days recorded, with a total rainfall of 1,490 mm, which was 633 mm less than the 30-year average value observed from 1971 to 2000. During the year, there were three typhoons and one severe tropical cyclone recorded.

Natural Resources:
There are water treatment plants on Macao Pennisula, Taipa, and Coloane.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2001 6,213,733,844.00 USD
2002 6,765,262,700.00 USD
2003 7,895,902,457.00 USD
2005 1,156,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2001 15,663.00 USD
2002 16,941.00 USD
2003 19,470.00 USD
2005 24,300.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2000 0% 9.8% 90.6%
2001 % 8.2% 92.4%
2002 % 7.2% 92.7%
2005 92.7% 7.2% 0.1%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2006 36.4% 30% 29%

External Aid/Remittances:
Since the signature of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement the EU has been investing some 1 million Euro a year in co-operation projects with Macao.

The main past and present projects are the following:
Training for the tourism industry (1999-2001). The EC co-operated with the Institute for Tourism Education to create in this institution a Regional Centre for Advanced Tourism Studies for the Asia/Pacific Region.
European Studies Programme (1999-2001). The project has supported the Institute of European Studies in Macao in its work of disseminating knowledge about the EU in the region through a number of initiatives including the creation of a Masters Degree in EU studies.

Services Development Programme (1999-2001). This programme aimed at advising Macao on ways to improve Macao's services sector by defining a proper administrative and legal framework and setting the ground for adequate training infrastructure.

Asia-Invest Programme (2001 and 2002). The programme provided co-funding for projects that brought together Asian and European companies in partnership.
Two business-matching events were held in Macao in September 2001 and June 2002.
EU-Macao Legal Co-operation Programme (2001-2005). The programme will help with training, workshops and seminars to develop Macao's legal system and promote the rule of law in the SAR.

Growth:
Per-capita GDP (MOP)(2001)125,687(+1.4%); (2002) 136,950(+9.0%);(2003)156,244(+14.1%);
Real growth rates %:6.7% (2005)
Private investment (2001)-11.6%; (2002)-3.6%; (2003)+36.1%;
Public investment +5.7%; +35.9%; +55.2%;
Domestic demand -0.2%; +5.0%; +11.8%;

Labour Force:
2002 214,000

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2003 6.3%

Industry:
Macau has shifted from being primarily a manufacturing-based economy, with a heavy emphasis on the textile sector, to a service economy focused heavily on tourism. Combined with gaming industry, tourism in Macau represents 40% of the Territory's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Population employed by sector: Wholesale/ retail trade (2006):36.4%;
Hotel, restaurants and similar activities: 30%;
Industry: 29.3%.

Niche Industry:
Higher education in Macau has been growing rapidly in recent years. There are altogether 11 institutions of higher-learning in Macau, which are engaged on research and training professionals.

Tourism:
In 1999 there were over 7.4 million visitor arrivals to Macau, an increase of 7.13% over the previous year. In the first half of 2000, over 4.36 million visitors have already come to the territory, an increase of 20.8% over the same period in 1999. It has been estimated that the number of visitor arrivals will hit 8 million in 2000.

2006 DSEC statical data: Total Visitors 2006: 21,998,100.
Visitors by sea: 7,655,900; by land: 13,106,100; by air: 1,236,200. Visitors from the EU: 191,000.

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Imports and Exports:

EU-Macao relations are based on a Trade and Co-operation Agreement concluded on 14 December 1992, which came into effect on 1 January 1993. This agreement covers trade and industrial, scientific and technical co-operation. A Joint Committee meets annually to oversee the operation of the Agreement and devises ways of developing trade and co-operation. The agreement remained in force after the transfer to Chinese sovereignty control. The Commission's 1998 Communication "Building a Comprehensive Partnership with China" stated that EU policy was to support Macao’s high degree of autonomy. This policy stems naturally from the EU's strong economic links and historical ties with Macao. On 12 November 1999 the Commission adopted a Communication to the Council and the European Parliament, entitled "The EU and Macao: Beyond 2000" . In this communication the EU considers that the respect for the principles set out in the Basic Law of the SAR and the full implementation of the concept "one country, two systems" guarantee the specific social, economic and cultural identity of Macao. The Commission committed itself to monitor the situation in the territory by issuing annual reports. In its 2002 report, the Commission concluded that three years after the hand-over, the Macao SAR has continued its good start, and that it will endeavour to support Macao’s stable development, in line with the ‘one country, two systems’ principle. Macao SAR disposes of an Economic and Trade Office (METO) accredited to the European Community, which ensures a regular dialogue between the EU and Macao on areas under the new SAR's responsibility, such as trade, economic relations and co-operation. Trade Statistics: USD, 2003.

Tot. Value of Imports 2,147,483,647.00 USD (2003)
From Eu: 330000000
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners: Macao's main suppliers of imported goods still concentrated in the Asian region. The value of imports from Mainland China and Hong Kong, comprising 52.6% of the total in the first eleven months of 2007, rose by 11.9% and 16.0% respectively year-on-year. Macao External Trade Statistics - November 2007
Tot. Value of Exports 2147483647 USD (2003)
To Eu: Exports: 590,000,000
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:

Number of Main Ports:

Internal:

Air

Road:
Total lane lengths of public roads (2006): Macao Pennisula: 189.3 Islands: 194.3

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:
Solid waste collected by type 2006: Domestic: 167,743 tonne;
Commercial/Industrial 55,915 tonne;
Construction: 1,971,003/m3;
Waste collected at sea m3/tonne: 4758/793.
Solid waste transported to incineration plant (2006): 286,358 tonne.
Untreated waste transported directly to landfill: 294 tonne.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)

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Official Currency:
Macau Pataca (MOP)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 

Financial Services:
Foreign Direct Investment: refers to direct investment made in Macao by residents of another economic region. 2005 total FDI enterprises: 1314; Financial: 47; banks and securities: 27; insurance: 20. New corporations 2006 Macao based: Financial services: 70.

Communications/E-Commerce:

Public Ownership:
The local government is the main media player in Macao; it runs the regions terrestrial TV and radio stations and subsidizes printed publications. Citing these ties, the Vienna-based International Press Institute reports that it is :difficult to define the media as independent.

The press
Macao Daily News - main daily, Chinese-language
Va Kio Daily - Chinese-language daily
Hoje Macau - Portuguese-language daily
Jornal Tribuna de Macau - Portuguese-language daily
Ponto Final - Portuguese-language daily

Television

Teledifusao Macau - operates Chinese and Portuguese-language networks

Radio
Radio Macau - operates Chinese and Portuguese-language networks

Land Use:

Agriculture/Forestry:
Only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
Average daily flow of waste water: 8,388 m3/day.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:

Political System:
Judicial Autonomy: The judiciary of the MSAR includes the courts and the Procuratorate (Public Prosecution).

According to the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region (MSAR), the MSAR enjoys independent judicial powers, including that of final adjudication. The courts of the MSAR exercise judicial power independently and are subordinate to nothing but the law.

The judges of the MSAR carry out administration of justice according to law. They are not subject to any command or instruction under any circumstances except the circumstances defined in Article 19 (3) of the Basic Law. The Procuratorate of the MSAR exercise procuratorial functions defined by law independently and are not subject to any interference.

External Relations: The Macau Special Administrative Region enjoys a high degree of autonomy except for foreign affairs and defence, which are the responsibilities of the Central People's Government. Notwithstanding the MSAR non-sovereign status, the Basic Law stipulates that the Central People's Government can authorise the SAR to conduct some external affairs. Furthermore, the MSAR can exercise, by itself, considerable powers regarding certain appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, science and technology and sports fields.

Political Parties:

Important Legislation:
On 20th December 1999 the Government of the People’s Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Macau and in accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, set up the Macau Special Administrative Region (MSAR).“A High Degree of Autonomy” means that the National People’s Congress (NPC) authorizes the MSAR to exercise a high degree of autonomy in line with the Basic Law, and that the Central Government will not interfere in the affairs that fall within the scope of autonomy of the MSAR. The MSAR enjoys executive, legislative and independent judicial power and that of final adjudication, as well as other kinds of power authorized by the Central Government, the NPC and its Standing Committee. However, a high degree of autonomy does not mean full autonomy. In order to uphold the unification of China and to safeguard the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, the Central Government retains necessary power over the MSAR. For instance, the Central Government is responsible for the foreign affairs and defence relating to the MSAR.

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
Republic of China

Citizenship:
According to the Basic Law, “Macau People” are the permanent residents of the MSAR, including Chinese, Portuguese and people of other ethnic origins, who meet the requirements defined by the Basic Law. The Chief Executive, members of the Executive Council and the Legislative Assembly, the President of the Court of Final Appeal and principal officials of the MSAR must be permanent residents of the region. And some of these positions can only be assumed by permanent residents of Macau who are Chinese citizens.

Paradiplomacy:
Currently, over 57 countries exercise consular jurisdiction in Macau, including the Consulate-general of Portugal, which is based in Macau, and consulates established in the HKSAR, but also accredited, or extend their consular jurisdictions to the MSAR, namely, Belgium, Uruguay, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, New Zealand, Canada, Austria, Norway, Switzerland, Finland, Nigeria, Israel, Spain, Holland, Japan, United States of America, Italy, Korea, India, France, Chile, Poland, Malaysia, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Czech, Bangladesh, Turkey, Philippines, Samoa, Greece, Great Britain, Argentina, Pakistan and Australia.

The MSAR participates in 21 international organizations. Using the name “Macau, China”, the MSAR participates on its own as a full member in international organizations not limited to states, including the World Trade Organization and the World Customs Organization (old Customs Cooperation Council).

As a part of the People's Republic of China delegation, representatives from the MSAR Government participate in international organizations limited to states, such as the International Maritime Organization, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization, the Universal Postal Union, the International Civil Aviation and the World Intellectual Property Organization.

Party to international agreements: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WMO, WTO


HUMAN RESOURCES

Population

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Macao 25 445,286 100%

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2006 75372 94,498 224,215 83,315 36,027

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Migration:
Non-resident workers in Macao (year-end balance 2006) 64,673. Legal immigrants from Mainland China: 2800. Illegal immigrants repatriated: 1,085.

Crude Birth Rate:
2006 8.1%

Life Expedctancy:
Life expectancy at birth (2002-2005): 79.4 Male: 77.6 Female: 82.3

Crude Death Rate:
2006 3.1%

Ethnicity:
Chinese 95.7%, Macanese (mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) 1%, other 3.3% (2001 census. Cantonese 87.9%, Hokkien 4.4%, Mandarin 1.6%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 3% (2001 census)

Class Division:

Languages:
Official languages: Chinese and Portuguese.

Religion:
Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none and other 35% (1997)

Literacy:
 94.5%; [97.2% of males, 92% of females] of population over the age of 15 years can read and write (2003).

Education System:
Ten-year free and quality education is offered in Macau. Secondary and primary schools in Macau fall into two categories public schools and private schools. From pre-school to form three pupils enjoy free education. Since the free education scheme was implemented in 1995, some private schools have joined the public school network while others have not. Up until the 1999/2000 academic year, 97 schools had been included in the public school network while 17 remained independent and over 376 million patacas had been invested on implementing compulsory education (including special education).

Higher education in Macau has been growing rapidly in recent years. There are altogether 11 institutions of higher-learning in Macau, which are engaged on research and training professionals.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


There are 113 schools in Macau, among which 17 are public schools, 94 are private schools using Chinese and English as teaching languages, two are private schools using Portuguese as teaching language. In the 1999/2000 academic years pupils attending kindergartens, pre-schools, primary schools and secondary schools totalled 98,964 and the number of teachers reached 3,846.

Medical Services:
Hospitals: 2 (2003);

Medical Clinics: 365 (2001); 380 (2002); 417 (2003);

Residents per doctor: 490 (2001); 480 (2002); 444 (2003);

Residents per nurse: 455 (2001); 451 (2002); 444 (2003);

Infant Mortality: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2004);
Male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births;
Female: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births;


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Macau was colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, becoming the first European settlement in the Far East.

Referenda:
Pro-reform forces are less vocal in Macau than in Hong Kong. But pro-democracy activists are pushing for universal suffrage after 2009, when Macau's constitution, the Basic Law, allows for changes to the electoral system.

Recent Significant Events:
On 20th December 1999, the Government of the People’s Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Macau and in accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, set up the Macau Special Administrative Region (MSAR).

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:

Sources:

http://www.dsec.gov.mo/e_index.html; http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/mc.html#Intro; http://safpsql.informac.gov.mo/gcs/info2000/English/Main.html; http://www.macmeekin.com/Library/Jurisds/Macau.htm; Macao SAR Government Portal: http://www.gov.mo/egi/Portal/rkw/public/view/showcomp.jsp?id=InfoShowTemp&docid=c373e91758fd02f28f6faa0da716056f BBC News (January 2008): http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/4080105.stm#facts. Macao gov. factsheet (2008): http://www.gcs.gov.mo/files/factsheet/geography.php?PageLang=E. Macao giv. census information (2008): http://www.dsec.gov.mo/index.asp?src=/english/indicator/e_dem_indicator_1.html Macao gov. population census estimates: http://www.dsec.gov.mo/index.asp?src=/english/indicator/e_dem_indicator_1.html. Documentation and Information Centre of the DSEC: http://www.dsec.gov.mo/search2/eng/search.html?Search=Search. European Commission, External Relations & European Neighborhood Policy: http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/news/ferrero/index.htm. CIA Factbook, Dec. 2007: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mc.html.

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