Jurisdiction Project

Newfoundland & Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the most recent province to join Canada, entering Confederation in 1949. Geographically, the province consists of the island of Newfoundland and the mainland Labrador, on Canada's Atlantic coast. The entire province was initially known as Newfoundland, but since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the "Government of Newfoundland and Labrador", and on December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to "Newfoundland and Labrador". In general day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians still refer to the province in a general way as "Newfoundland," while the Labrador region of the province is usually referred to as simply Labrador. Labrador is a sparsely populated piece of mainland located across the Strait of Belle Isle from the Northeastern arm of the island.

Newfoundland and Labrador consistently ranks as Canada’s poorest province. The local economy, long dependent on the ever-dwindling fisheries, is turning its focus towards its abundant energy-producing capabilities.

The island's name, "Newfoundland", is derived from English as "New Found Land", Latin translation Terra Nova. Labrador comes from the Portuguese lavrador, a title meaning "landholder" held by Portuguese explorer of the region, João Fernandes Lavrador.

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador totals 405,212 km sq (156,453 mi sq). The island of Newfoundland is 111,390 km sq (43,008 mi sq). Highest elevation [in Labrador]: 1,652 m (5,420 ft).

Newfoundland is located in the Atlantic Ocean, and is the Eastern-most province in Canada.

Latitude and Longitude:
48 45 North Latitude and 56 00 West Longitude. Newfoundland Standard Time Zone (UTC-330).

Time Zone:
GMT - 3:30

Total Land Area:


Newfoundland has a maritime climate, and has considerable variations between the inland and coastal areas. It has the strongest winds in Canada, with most weather stations recording average wind speeds above 20 km/hour. It is also quite wet, with all regions of the island, except the Northern coast, averaging over 1,000 mm of precipitation/year. St. John’s has an average of 1,513.7 mm/year of precipitation. The spring and summer are quite cool by the Canadian standard. The summers are sunny, with afternoon highs in the area of low 20s Celsius. The average winter in the interior is between –6 C or –10 C, while winters on the Southeast coast is between –2 C and –4 C. The growing season ranges from under 100 days in the interior to approximately 150 days on the South coast.

Natural Resources:
Trees (for pulp), off-shore petroleum, iron ore, fish


Total GDP:
2003 13,038,300,000.00 USD
2006 25,608,000.00 USD
2007 23,237,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2006 27,211.00 USD
2005 25,909.00 USD
2003 24,300.00 USD
2004 24,816.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2003 22.9% 15.1% 62%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2004 7.9% 14.5% 77.6%

External Aid/Remittances:
External Revenue (2003/4 fiscal year): Equalization payment from federal government (Canada): $766 million; Health and Social Transfers: $629 million.

Growth Rate: 6.5% (2003);

Labour Force:
2004 255,000
2003 254,100
2002 248,700
2006 253,100

Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2004 15.6%
2003 16.4%
2002 16.6%
2006 14.8%

Iron-ore mining, oil (123 million barrels produced in 2003) newsprint production (781,000 tonnes shipped from mills in 2003), fishing, logging and forestry, electricity production, tourism (441,400 visitors in 2003).

Niche Industry:
Mining, newsprint production, electricity production.

The Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation has launched its 2008 resident winter tourism campaign, which encourages Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to take advantage of events and activities the season has to offer. Promoting resident travel has become an important initiative for the Provincial Government. Latest statistics indicate that resident trips make up 86 per cent of total trips and account for 62 per cent of total expenditures. The total resident and non-resident tourism industry contributes about $840 million to the provincial economy.The Provincial Government has committed to spending an additional $$1 million on tourism marketing in 2008, effectively doubling the marketing budget from $6 million to $12 million since taking office in 2003.

The island was inhabited by the Beothuks and later the Mi'kmaq. The oldest known settlement anywhere in The Americas built by Europeans is located at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. It was founded circa 1000 A.D. by Leif Ericson's Vikings. Remnants and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Imports and Exports:

Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:



Number of Airports:
St. John’s International Airport is serviced by one major carrier, Air Canada, as well as a variety of regional and charter airlines. It is connected to most major centres in Canada and United States. It has 3 asphalt runways: 1. 2,600 m (8,500 ft), 2. 2,100 m (7,000 ft), 3. 1,500 m (5,025 ft). Flights operated by Air Saint Pierre serve St. Pierre (France). The airport is operated by the St. John’s International Airport Authority. Regular service within the province is provided by Air Canada Jazz, Provincial Airlines, and Air Labrador. Gander International is a joint civil/military airport. It is served by Air Canada Jazz and Provincial Airlines, as well as a variety of charters on a seasonal basis. It has 3 asphalt runways, which are 3,109 m (10,200 ft), 572 m (1,875 ft), and 2,713 m (8,900 ft). Stephenville Airport, on the site of a former United States Airforce Base, is now operated by a local airport authority. It has 2 asphalt runways, which are 3,048 m (10,000 ft) and 1,341 (4,400 ft). Deer Lake Regional Airport features 1 paved runway, which is 1,828 m (6,000 ft). There are two airports in Labrador: Churchill Falls, and Goose Bay.

Number of Main Ports:
St. John’s Port Authority is an autonomous federal Crown corporation. The port features 37 berths. 19 cruise ships visited it in 2004.



The Trans-Canada Highway (Route 1) covers 905 km (562 miles) on the island, connecting Port aux Basques with St. John’s. In total, there are 6,834.8 km (4,247 miles) of asphalt road on the island of Newfoundland, 478.9 km (297.8 miles) of Class 2 Road (gravel surfaced main highways), and 387.8 km (241 miles) of Class 3 Road (local and secondary gravel surfaced roads). Daily bus service between Port aux Basques and St. John’s is available through DRL Coachlines. Service to other communities is also available, including Corner Brook to St. Anthony, which is handled daily by Viking Express. St. John’s has a transit system. In 2003 it consisted of 54 buses, servicing 3,146,646 riders over 17 routes.

Marine Atlantic operates year-round ferry service connecting North Sydney, Nova Scotia and Port aux Basques, Southwest Newfoundland. From mid-June to mid-September an additional ferry operates from North Sydney to Argentia, Southeast Newfoundland. A variety of smaller ferries connect small communities on the island. There is daily service in the summer between St. Barbe and Blanc Sablon, which is on the Quebec/Labrador border. Roll-on/roll-off freighter service is being developed between the Port of Belledune, located in Northeastern New Brunswick and Corner Brook, Newfoundland.

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:
Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro is a provincial Crown corporation. Its power-generating assets include 1 oil-fired plant, 4 gas turbines, 26 diesel plants, and 10 hydroelectric plants, including Churchill Falls (Labrador) hydraulic plant (5,428 MW). Hydro provides over 80% of the province’s energy needs (6,487 GWH in 2004). The provincial Crown corporation, Newfoundland Power, is responsible for distribution of electricity to approximately 85% of the total population. It buys approximately 90% of its electricity from Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro. Approximately 70% of the electricity generated in the province is exported.

Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)


Official Currency:
Canadian dollar (CD)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Foreign currencies can be exchanged at the Island’s various financial institutions. Currency from the United States is widely accepted by the province’s businesses, although there is no consistency to the exchange rate offered.

Financial Services:
Well developed Canadian banking system, which is interwoven into the international banking scene.

Communications on Newfoundland and Labrador are open to the outside world. The provincial government maintains an impressive web presence, with information readily available. The private sphere also maintains a strong presence. There is a strong media presence on the island, including numerous newspapers, radio stations, a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation television station in St. John’s, and the privately-owned Newfoundland Television Network, which was affiliated with the Canadian Television broadcasting corporation until the 2002-2003 programming season.

Public Ownership:
The province operates a number of Crown corporations, including the Bull Arm Fabrication Site, the Newfoundland Liquor Corporation, the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board, Newfoundland & Labrador Hydro, the Harmon Corporation, the Newfoundland Farm Products Corporation, and the Newfoundland and Labrador Housing Corporation. There are also a variety of federal crown corporations present on the island, including the St. John’s Port Authority. Local businesses are supported by the Newfoundland and Labrador Community Business Development Corporation, which provides technical and financial support to small and medium-sized businesses, as well as the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency.

Land Use:
Freehold – private land, ownership transferable. Gros Morne National Park, established in 1970, covers 1,805 sq. km. (697 sq. mi.). Located on the western coast of Newfoundland, it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Terra Nova National Park, established in 1957, covers 400 sq. km. (154 sq. mi.). It is located on Bonavista Bay, in eastern Newfoundland. The island has many National Historic Sites, including Signal Hall, L’Anse aux Meadows, Port-aux-Choix, and Cape Spear. There also 18 ecological reserves in the province (16 are located on the island of Newfoundland). There are 6 Seabird Ecological Reserves, 4 Fossils/Geology Ecological Reserves, 6 Rare Plant/Habitat Ecological Reserves, and 1 Provisional Reserve.

In 2001 there were 643 farms in the province; likewise, in 2003 there were over 100 food manufacturers. The major products are dairy, poultry, red meats, vegetables, and fruit.

Marine Activity:

Newfoundland and Labrador’s coastal waters fall under federal jurisdiction.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
Out-migration: Between 1996 and 2001 47,000 moved away from the province, while only 16,000 moved into it. This problem is aggravated by the fact that those mostly likely to move are young, productive individuals seeking improved opportunities. There is an acknowledged need to entice the expatriate population back, as well as a need to develop an immigration strategy. Unemployment: The province of Newfoundland and Labrador consistently has the highest level of unemployment in the country. Human Resource Development: There is an acknowledged need in the province to improve career counselling within the school system in order to draw attention to emerging opportunities, as well as a need to emphasize the growth of entrepreneurship.


St John's.

Political System:
Parliamentary democracy. Newfoundland and Labrador is governed by a unicameral parliament. Legislative Assembly: consists of 48 members from ridings across the province. The Assembly debates public issues, enacts legislation, approves government financial proposals, and holds government accountable. Monarch: represented in the province’s legislature by the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor’s responsibilities include summoning, proroguing, and dissolving the legislature. Also reads the Speech from the Throne that opens each Session of Parliament, and ensures that the post of the Premier always occupied. Is appointed by Governor General on advice of Prime Minister. Executive Council: also known as the Cabinet, is the executive branch of government. It handles policy and direction. Ministers appointed by Lieutenant Governor on advice of President of the Executive Council, which is the Premier (also known as the First Minister). Ministers are usually, but not always, designated as head of a specific governmental department. Speaker: selected by secret ballot from within provincial legislature. All members eligible, except for Premier, his/her Executive Council, and leaders of opposition parties. Duty is, in a non-partisan manner, to oversee conduct of parliamentary business. Premier: is the chief minister of the provincial government, and as such dominates the policy direction and activities of the government. The Premier attains office by being party leader of the majority party in the provincial legislature, or, theoretically should a majority not emerge from an election, the leader of the bloc with the most seats. The position of party leader is selected in a party leadership contest. The Premier is responsible for selecting the provincial cabinet, and its members ultimately owe their allegiance to the Premier, as s/he may remove them from their post at any time. The Premier wields additional leverage as the constitutional powers of the Lieutenant Governor are ordinarily exercised on the advice of the Premier. Justice System: The Provincial Court of Newfoundland and Labrador consists of 23 judges, and convenes at 11 locations across the province – 9 on the island itself. It is the “court of first instances” for criminal cases, as well as all non-criminal offences. It also acts as the Youth Court, Traffic Court, Small Claims Court for civil claims up to $5,000, and outside St. John’s handles Family Law. The Provincial Court also has jurisdiction to conduct inquiries into mysterious deaths and fires. The Supreme Court has 3 divisions. The Trial Division has unlimited jurisdiction in criminal matters and all civil cases, although financial disputes tend to be above $3,000, family matters, and appeals from the lower levels. The Court of Appeals hears appeals in criminal and civil matters from the Trial Division and Provincial Court. There is also a Unified Family Court in St. John’s. The Trial Division has 6 judicial centres, while the Court of Appeal is located in St. John’s.

Political Parties:
Political Parties: The province is dominated by the Liberal and Progressive Conservative parties. The New Democratic Party also contests elections in the province. Elections: Statutory term is five years; however, term rarely extends this long as parliament may be dissolved at any point by the Lieutenant Governor on advice of Premier.

Important Legislation:
Newfoundland Act, 23 March 1949: Establishes terms of union between Canada and Newfoundland, including transitional grants, representation in federal parliament, and also clarifies provincial and federal responsibilities for various areas including fisheries and service. Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, 1987: Agreement between two governments on offshore petroleum resource management and revenue sharing. Grants Newfoundland and Labrador 100% of offshore oil revenues. Typically this oil would belong to the federal government, as Canadian waters are federal jurisdiction. The Charter: The relationship between Canada and its constituent provinces is outlined in the British North America Act, 1867. Section 91 lists the areas of federal jurisdiction, while Section 92 lists the areas of provincial jurisdiction. In 1982 the Canadian constitution was repatriated, and the British North America Act subsequently became a part of the new Constitution Act, 1982. Provincial powers are outlined in Section 92 of the British North America Act, 1867. These include direct taxation within the province, establishment and management of hospitals, asylums, and charities, the administration of licences for shops, saloons, and auctioneers, property and civil rights within the province, and the administration of justice within the province. Federal powers are outlined in Section 91 of the British North America Act, 1867. These include power over the public debt, regulation of trade and commerce, postal service, national defence, shipping and navigation, currency, banking, Native affairs, immigration, and criminal law.

Principal Taxes:
The provincial and federal sales taxes have been amalgamated into one Harmonized Sales Tax, at 15% on all taxable goods and services. Personal income tax: the federal government charges 16% on the first $35,000, 22% on income between $35,001 and $70,000, 26% between 70,001 and 113,804, and 29% above $113,804 (2004). Provincial government also charges income tax: 10.57% up to $29,589, 16.16% between $29,590 and $59,179, and 18.02% above $59,180 (2002). There is a basic federal corporate tax of 25% on net business income. There are 3 provincial corporate tax rates (as of May 2005): general rate 14%, manufacturing and processing rate 5%, and small business rate 5%.

Associated Power:


The federal government handles international representation and treaties.


Population (by age, 2004): <15: 82,542; 15-64: 368,003; >64: 66,482.

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Newfoundland & Labrador 37,494 505,469 1.4%

Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2004 82542 0 0 0 66,842


Net Migration (Interprovincial): -1,980 (2003-04); -1,683 (2002-03); -3,352 (2001-02).

Crude Birth Rate:
2001 8.8%

Life Expedctancy:
77.7 years (1999)

Crude Death Rate:
2001 8.4%

The vast majority of the population is descended from 19th century settlers from England and Ireland.

Class Division:
The Innu are descended from populations which came to Québec-Labrador thousands of years ago. The Innu originally were caribou hunters. By the mid-1800s most areas were overtrapped, and the southern Innu needed assistance from missions and the government to survive. Soon commercial forestry increased their difficulties, and they were excluded from salmon rivers, which were leased by clubs and individuals.

Starting in 1830, the Husons's Bay Company opened posts in this northern region, supplied first from Fort Chimo and later from North West River, Labrador. The fur trade had disastrous results, because trapping did not fit with nomadic caribou hunting. Large numbers of people died, some of starvation and others from disease. By the 1950s a still unsettled Barren Ground group was trading at Fort Chimo; sick and starving, they were finally persuaded by the government to settle at the new mining town of Schefferville, Québec.

In the early 1970s the Innu organized themselves politically with the Conseil Attikameg-Montagnais in Québec, the Naskapi Montagnais Innu Association in Labrador (now called the Innu Nation) and the Naskapi Band of Schefferville. In 1975 the latter was excluded from the Agreement in Principle leading to the James Bay Agreement, but negotiated a separate agreement, providing them with the new village of Kawawachikamach. Today, the Labrador Innu are represented by the Innu Nation, while the Québec Innu are represented by Mamuitun and Mammit Innuat. The groups are pressing the government for settlement of their land claims, and protection from the impact of forestry, hydroelectric dams, roads, low-level military flights and mines, such as that now planned for Voisey Bay, Labrador.

In 1993 the Innu of Davis Inlet (Utshimassits) attracted the attention of the world's press over a gas-sniffing epidemic. The children involved recovered but the incident came to represent the conditions of native communities in Canada and the world. As a result of the attention, the Innu of Davis Inlet were relocated to their traditional hunting grounds at Sango Bay. Natuashish, the name of the community, is situated on the northern coast of Labrador 185 miles north of Happy Valley-Goose Bay. Natuashish is only accessible by water or air. Natuashish is in close proximity to Utshimassits (Davis Inlet), the present community of the Mushuau Innu Band, being only 15 kilometers west of it. Natuashish, unlike Utshimassits, is situated on the mainland, so accessibility to better resources as well as traditional hunting grounds become greater.

The aboriginal people in Labrador have a long history of unequal treatment by private enterprise and government agencies. The Inuktitut language is now being taught in some schools in Labrador.

English, although government services are offered in French according to Canadian bilingual regulations.

According to 1991 census results, 60.5 % of respondents were Protestant, 36.8 % were Roman Catholic, and 1.63% claimed had no religion.

 StatsCan research on literacy are not applicable because they combine the Atlantic provinces into one unit.

Education System:
The Department of Education operates 305 schools in the province. There are 10 Anglophone school boards and 1 francophone. The government funds public education from kindergarten to grade 12. There are 11 private schools operating in the province. Post secondard institutes: College of the North Atlantic, Marine Institute of Memorial University of Newfoundland, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College.

Private Training Colleges: Academy Canada, CompuCollege, Corona College, Keyin College.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools


Number of Schools per Island:


Students Enrolled:


In total, 82,000 students attended k-12 in 2003-2004. Funding provided by the province for Memorial University (4 campuses, 17,222 students in fall 2003) and College of the North Atlantic, which provides a wide range of programs including business, applied arts, industrial trades, information technology, and health sciences (17 campuses, 6,627 students in fall 2003). Numerous private training schools operate on the Island, providing vocational training.

Medical Services:
There are 11 hospitals on the island of Newfoundland (12 province-wide), and many more nursing homes and community health care centres throughout the province. There are approximately 640 physicians province-wide, and 13,000 full-time jobs in health care. Memorial University has its own medical school. Canadian health care is administered by provinces according to the Canada Health Act. It dictates that health care must be publicly administered, comprehensive, universally available, portable and accessible to all Canadian residents. It also contains provisions to discourage extra-billing and user charges for insured health services.


 From its earliest days of European occupation, Newfoundland has been closely linked to the fisheries. Visited by John Cabot in 1497, the British first settled the island in 1610 and, while official rules discouraged permanent settlement in the early years, by 1775 the population exceeded 12,000.

The population continued to grow as the fish trade thrived between the island, Britain, and the West Indies. A thriving colony, it rejected entering Confederation with Canada until 1949, when the debt accumulated by their railway and First World War service rendered continued political independence difficult.

In an effort to modernize the province and better provide services for its population, beginning in 1953, the Newfoundland government assisted the depopulation of small, isolated fishing communities known as the "out ports", as well as the consequential resettlement in predetermined “growth centres.” This process was formalized in 1965 as the Fisheries Household Resettlement Program, and led to the abandonment of approximately 250 communities.

The Newfoundland economy was dealt a devastating blow in 1992 when the federal government issued a moratorium on cod fishing, causing 19,000 fishers and plant workers, as well as an estimated 20,000 others employed in spin-off employment, to lose their jobs. This fishery has not recovered as had been originally hoped, forcing the province to restructure the economy.

In June 1948 a referendum was held in which Newfoundlanders were asked to choose between entering Confederation, dominion (responsible government) status (perhaps leading to economic union with the United States), or the current system, in which officials appointed by Britain governed the island. Islanders favoured responsible government; however, there was not a clear majority, so a second referendum was held the following month. In a vote that largely divided along sectarian lines (Roman Catholics tended to oppose Confederation, while Protestants favoured it), the option of Confederation with Canada won with 52% of ballots cast. This led to renewed negotiations between Newfoundland and Canada, which led to the province’s ultimate entry as the tenth province in 1949.

Recent Significant Events:
Atlantic Accord: In 1987 a deal between the federal and provincial governments agreed to allow the province to keep the benefits of offshore oil development, as if the resources were located on land. A deal signed between Newfoundland and Labrador and the federal government on February 14, 2005 agreed to refund the province for any reductions in equalization payments brought about by influx of money from offshore oil resources. The arrangement will be reviewed by the parties no later than March 31, 2005. Mega projects: There are a couple projects that look especially promising for the long-struggling province. Voisey’s Bay will host an open pit nickel mine, which is expected to begin operations in 2006. It should provide provincial coffers with $11 billion (Canadian) over 30 years. The oil fields are also benefiting the province. With two fields, Hibernia and Terra Nova, in production, in 2003 they accounted for the direct employment of 2,600, and 18% of the province’s total GDP. A third oil field, White Rose, is scheduled to commence production by 2006.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
Newfoundland folk music arrived from England, Ireland, and Scotland during the colonial times and flourished with a special Newfoundland theme coming from the bare rock and wild seas. Today's Newfoundland music is well-known through artists like Ron Hynes and Great Big Sea.

There are eight Newfoundland theatre companies currently staging or preparing to stage productions, and hundreds of authors of history texts, folk lore, and novels based on Newfoundland and Labrador.


Memorial University Libraries,Newfoundland & Labrador Websites by subject: education: http://www.library.mun.ca/qeii/cns/education.php.

The Newfoundland Aboriginal Womens Network, 2008. http://www.nawn-nf.com/home.htm.

“About the Industry,” Agrifoods, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.nr.gov.nl.ca/agric/about/ March 22, 2005. “About the NLC,” Newfoundland Liquor Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.nfliquor.com/about/default.asp March 25, 2005. “About the Port,” Port of/de Belledune. Retrieved from http://www.portofbelledune.ca/location_en.html March 24, 2005. “About Us,” Downhomer.Com. Retrieved from http://www.downhomer.com/Company/about.asp March 25, 2005. “A gleam in the mist,” Economist, August 3, 2004, Vol. 364, Issue 8284. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. “Aircraft and Runways,” St. John’s International Airport Authority. Retrieved from http://www.stjohnsairport.com/travelinfo/default.htm March 21, 2005. “Atlantic Accord,” Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.gov.nl.ca/atlanticaccord/agreement.htm May 20, 2005. Bickerton, Geoff, “Public Sector Struggles Continue,” Canadian Dimension, May/June 2004, Vol. 38, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Bogomolny, Laura, Claire Gagné, Becky Guthrie, and Dawn Calleja, “Biotech Nation,” Canadian Business, September 27, 2004, Vol. 77, Issue 19. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. “Budget 2004,” Finance, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.economics.gov.nl.ca/E2004/E2004.pdf March 24, 2005. Bull Arm Fabrication Site. Retrieved from http://www.bullarm.com/index.html March 25, 2005. “Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act, 1987,” Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-7.5/26500.html May 20, 2005. Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. Retrieved from http://www.cnopb.nfnet.com/ March 25, 2005. “Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000 [St. John’s],” Environment Canada. Retrieved from http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/results_e.html?Province=NFLD&StationName=&SearchType=&LocateBy=Province&Proximity=25&ProximityFrom=City&StationNumber=&IDType=MSC&CityName=&ParkName=&LatitudeDegrees=&LatitudeMinutes=&LongitudeDegrees=&LongitudeMinutes=&NormalsClass=A&SelNormals=&StnId=6720& March 25, 2005. Canadian Global Almanac 2003. Toronto: John Wiley and Sons Canada, 2002. Clover, Charles, “After the gold rush,” Ecologist, December 2004/January 2005, Vol. 34, Issue 10. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. College of the North Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.cna.nl.ca/ March 25, 2005. “Corner Brook Port,” Corner Brook Port Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.cornerbrookportcorp.com/About%20Port.htm March 25, 2005. “Corporate Income Tax,” Finance, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.fin.gov.nl.ca/fin/corbustax.html May 20, 2005. “Corporate Overview,” Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro. Retrieved from http://www.nlh.nl.ca/Hydroweb/hydroweb.nsf/GeneralDocs/DE704A70C3215B90A3256FD6003FB597?OpenDocument May 20, 2005. “Court Profile,” Provincial Court of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov.nl.ca/just/Provincial_court/profile.htm#WHAT%20IS%20THE%20PROVINCIAL%20COURT March 25, 2005. “Crazed by thirst,” Economist, September 15, 2001, Vol. 360, Issue 8239. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Curtis, Wayne, “The Iceberg Wars,” Atlantic Monthly, March 2002, Vol. 289, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Demont, John, “Sea Change,” Canadian Dimension, April 12, 2004, Vol. 77, Issue 8. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. “Departmental Profile,” Health and Community Services, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.nl.ca/health/department/default.htm March 26, 2005. “Department of Education Annual Report 2003-04,” Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/pub/ann_rep/ann_rep_edu03-04.pdf March 25, 2005. “Economic,” Harmon Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.nf.ca/society/stephenville/harmon-corp.html March 25, 2005. “Employment by Industry (NAICS), Newfoundland and Labrador, 1997-2004 Annual and Current Month, Thousands,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/Labour/Employment_Industry.asp March 20, 2005. “Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories,” Transfer Payments to Provinces and Territories, Department of Finance Canada (October 2004). Retrieved from http://www.fin.gc.ca/FEDPROV/mtpe.html#Prince March 24, 2005. Feltham, Stacy, “Newfoundland Courts,” White, Ottenheimer & Baker. Retrieved from http://www.wob.nf.ca/News/1998/May98/courts.htm March 25, 2005. Finlay, Charles, “Give me a V…!”, Canadian Business, July 8, 2002, Vol. 75, Issue 13. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Forbes, E.R. and D.A. Muise, eds. The Atlantic Provinces In Confederation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Gander International Airport Authority Inc. Retrieved from http://www.ganderairport.com/ May 24, 2005. “GDP By Industry, Newfoundland and Labrador (Chained 1997 $ millions),” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/GDP/GDP_Industry.asp March 20, 2005. “General Information About Newfoundland & Labrador,” Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.gov.nf.ca/tourism/topmenu/info/default.htm March 21, 2005. Greenwood, Rob, “Newfoundland: Between Colonial Paternalism and Self-sufficiency,” Institute of Island Studies, On-Line Library, 1995. Retrieved from http://www.upei.ca/islandstudies/art_rg_1.htm March 24, 2005. “Gros Morne National Park of Canada,” Parks Canada. Retrieved from http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/nl/grosmorne/index_e.asp April 1, 2005. Janigan, Mary, “Opening the floodgates,” Maclean’s, June 4, 2001, Vol. 114, Issue 23. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Janigan, Mary, “Something’s Fishy,” Maclean’s, September 27, 2004, Vol. 117, Issue 39. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. “Labour Force Characteristics, Newfoundland and Labrador, Annual Averages 1998-2004,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/Labour/LFC_Annual.asp March 20, 2005. MacKenzie, Debora, “Misplaced optimism has delayed recovery of cod,” New Scientist, September 27, 2003, Vol. 179, Issue 2414. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Martin, Shelley, “Nfld., Sask. Retain Smallest Proportion of Postgraduate Trainees,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, April 17, 2001, Vol. 164, Issue 8. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Mason, Fred, “The Newfoundland Cod Stock Collapse: A Review and Analysis of Social Factors,” Electronic Green Journal, December 2002. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Mathews, Maria, and Alison C. Edward, “Having a regular doctor: rural, semi-urban and urban differences in Newfoundland,” Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine, Summer 2004, Vol. 9, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. Mayda, Chris, “Resettlement in Newfoundland: Again,” Focus on Geography, Summer 2004, Vol. 48, Issue 1. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. McClearn, Matthew, “The Rock in a Hard Place,” Canadian Business, November 9, 2003, Vol. 76, Issue 21. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. McCorquodale, Susan, “Newfoundland: Plus Ça Change, Plus C’est La Même Chose.” In Martin Robin, ed. Canadian Provincial Politics: The Party Systems of the Ten Provinces. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1978: pp. 138-170. “Members of the Judiciary,” Provincial Court of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov.nl.ca/just/Provincial_court/judiciary.htm March 25, 2005. “Memorial University as a Resource for Economic Development: The Harris Centre Responds to Report from Regional Workshops and Provincial Symposium on Growing the Economy of Newfoundland and Labrador, September 22nd to October 5th, 2004,” Harris Centre, Memorial University. Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/harriscentre/Harris%20Response%20Final.pdf April 5, 2005. “Metrobus Charter Service,” Metrobus. Retrieved from http://www.metrobus.com/op_stats.php March 22, 2005. Miller, James, “Religious Demographics 1857-1991 for Newfoundland and Labrador,” Religious Data, Issues & Resources. Retrieved from http://www.mun.ca/rels/data/index.html March 25, 2005. Milne, David, “The Federal Model: Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island.” In Godfrey Baldacchino and David Milne, eds. Lessons from the Political Economy of Small Islands: The Resourcefulness of Jurisdiction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000: pp.75-90. “Net Interprovincial Migration By Age Group, Newfoundland and Labrador, July 1, 1971-72 to 2003-04,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/Population/PDF/NetMig_AgeSex_BS.PDF March 20, 2005. “Newfoundland Act,” Solon Law Archive. Retrieved from http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/nfa.html May 20, 2005. Newfoundland and Labrador Community Business Development Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.cbdc.nf.ca/ March 25, 2005. Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro. Retrieved from http://www.nlh.nl.ca/hydroweb/hydroweb.nsf/default?openform May 20, 2005. Newfoundland & Labrador Hydro. Retrieved from http://www.nlh.nf.ca/ March 25, 2005. Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/ March 20, 2005. Newfoundland Television Network. Retrieved from http://www.ntv.ca/ March 25, 2005. “Now let’s dig an expensive hole,” Economist, November 29, 2003, Vol. 369, Issue 8352. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. “Operating Statistics,” Metrobus. Retrieved from http://www.metrobus.com/op_stats.php March 22, 2005. “Parks and Natural Areas – Ecological Reserves,” Environment and Conservation, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/parks&reserves/ecolres.htm April 1, 2005. “Parks and Natural Areas – Provincial Parks,” Environment and Conservation, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/parks&reserves/provparks.htm April 1, 2005. Pippy Park. Retrieved from http://www.pippypark.com/welcome.shtml March 25, 2005. “Population By Age Group, Newfoundland and Labrador, July 1, 1971 to 2004,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/Population/PDF/PopAgeSex_BS.PDF March 20, 2005. “Port Facilities,” St. John’s Port Authority. Retrieved from http://www.sjpa.com/portfac.htm March 22, 2005. “Profile,” Newfoundland Power. Retrieved from http://www.newfoundlandpower.com/aboutus/profile.htm May 20, 2005. Protected Areas Association of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.nfld.net/paa/ March 25, 2005. Rose, G.A., “Reconciling overfishing and climate change with stock dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over 500 years,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Acquatic Sciences, September 2004, Vol. 61, Issue 9. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. Ryan, Beth, “Disgruntled Newfoundland MDs take job action,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, October 30, 2001, Vol. 165, Issue 9. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. “Selected Economic Indicators,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/flashsheets/SelEconIndicators.PDF March 20, 2005. “Skint,” Economist, May 1, 2004, Vol. 371, Issue 8373. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. “Stephenville Airport,” Town of Stephenville. Retrieved from http://www.town.stephenville.nf.ca/sville-airport.html March 21, 2005. “Stephenville,” World Aero Data. Retrieved from http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=CA46396 March 21, 2005. “Supreme Court (Trial Division),” Justice, Government of Newfoundland & Labrador. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov.nl.ca/just/LAWCOURT/trial.htm March 25, 2005. “Tentative Cruise Ship Schedule,” St. John’s Port Authority. Retrieved from http://www.sjpa.com/cruise_ship_schedule.htm March 22, 2005. “Terra Nova National Park of Canada,” Parks Canada. Retrieved from http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/nl/terranova/index_e.asp April 1, 2005. “The Climate of Newfoundland,” Atlantic Climate Centre, Environment Canada. Retrieved from http://atlantic-web1.ns.ec.gc.ca/climatecentre/default.asp?lang=En&n=83846147-1#intro March 25, 2005. “The Economic Review: Newfoundland and Labrador,” Department of Finance, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, November 2003. Retrieved from http://www.economics.gov.nf.ca/review2004/Review2004.pdf March 20, 2005. Tomblin, Stephen, “Newfoundland and Labrador at the Crossroads: Reform or Lack of Reform in a New Era?”, Journal of Canadian Studies, Spring 2002, Vol. 27, Issue 1. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. “Trains, planes, automobiles and boats,” Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism. Retrieved from http://www.gov.nf.ca/tourism/mainmenu/gettinghere/trans/default.htm March 21, 2005. “Transportation,” Corner Brook. Retrieved from http://www.cornerbrook.com/business/btrans.html March 22, 2005. “Unemployment Rate (%), Canada & Provinces, 1998-2004 Annual, and Current Month, Seasonally Adjusted,” Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/Statistics/Labour/Unemployment_Rate.asp March 20, 2005. “Voisey’s Bay Gets Off The Ground,” Engineering & Mining Journal, July 2002, Vol. 203, Issue 7. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 20, 2005. Wangersky, Russell, “Hi Ho, It’s Back to Work They Go,” Maclean’s, Vol. 117, Issue 19. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. Wangersky, Russell, “Memorial University of Newfoundland Botanical Garden,” Maclean’s, April 26, 2004, Vol. 117, Issue 17. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005. Will, Gavin, “A City on the Rise,” Maclean’s, January 19, 2004, Vol. 117, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 19, 2005.

Prov. Gov. Newfoundland and Labrador Press Release,Jan 21, 2008: http://www.releases.gov.nl.ca/releases/2008/tcr/0121n04.htm.

Statistics Canada;Prov of Newfoundland and Labrador Statistics Agency, Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Finance: http://www.stats.gov.nl.ca/flashsheets/SelEconIndicators.PDF.

Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland & Labrador, 2008: http://wordplay.com/arts/.

Tanner, Adrian. Innu (Montagnais-Naskapi). The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2007. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0005389SUBReadings.

Our Labrador. Natushish. 2007. http://www.ourlabrador.ca/member.php?id=7.


Useful Links:

Please address queries to:
Institute of Island Studies
University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI)
550 University Ave
Charlottetown, PE, Canada, C1A 4P3

Copyright 2007. Institute of Island Studies, UPEI. Educational and
Non-Commercial Use Only