Norfolk Island is a small island located off the eastern coast of Australia, approximately 1,450 km (900 mi.) from Brisbane. It is an internally self-governing territory of the Australian Commonwealth. It has a Legislative Assembly responsible for local matters, and the population is eligible to vote in Australian federal elections, although it does not form a separate federal electorate.
Land: 34.6 sq. km. (13.36 sq. mi.). 8 km (5 mi.) x 5 km. (3 mi.). Highest elevation 320 m (1,050 ft).
Located approximately 1,130 km (700 mi.) northwest of Auckland, New Zealand, and approximately 1,450 km (900 mi.) east of Brisbane, Australia.
Latitude and Longitude:
29 01 South Latitude and 167 56 East Longitude. NFT (UTC + 11:30).
Total Land Area:
Subtropical climate, with a summer daytime average of 24-28° Celsius, and a mid-winter daytime average of 19-21° Celsius. May to August is the rainiest period, with a monthly average of 140-150 mm. The yearly average rainfall is 1,328 mm. The island tends to be quite humid, although the southern winds tend to lower this.
Only 191ha or 5% remains of the island's natural forests. Dense rainforest exists within the National Park and parts of the Island are still have stands of Norfolk Island pine. A flowering white oak is prevalent and the seeds of kentia palms form a small commercial crop. There is a sub-tropical rainforest on Mt Pitt with palms and giant ferns. Introduced kikuyu grass covers many slopes while various ornamental shrubs and trees have been introduced including hibiscus, wild lemon, macadamia nut, red and yellow guava and avocado trees. There are 182 plants native to the island.
There are 55 species of birds including white terns, vivid parrots and the endemic and rare green parrot.
The Norfolk Natonal Park is and The Norfolk Island Botanical Gardens which features around 40 endemic species, including 15 flora species considered to be critically endangered are managed by the Australian Government.
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Norfolk Island is internally self-funding, although it does receive occasional funding from the federal government. Notwithstanding the decision that it should be largely financially self-sufficient, Norfolk Island does receive assistance and funding from the Federal Government.
The Australian government makes annual allocations to Norfolk Island for federal agencies operating on the island, amounting to approximately $3-4 million (AU) annually. The federal government makes an annual contribution, approximately $500,000 (AU), for the conservation and maintenance of Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area. Funding is also provided for federal capital works projects.
As an Australian territory, the island is also eligible to apply to a wide range of national grant programs, such as a former $15,000 (AU) grant to research the inshore fishery), as well as infrastructure and development-related loans and grants (such as a recently announced $5.8 million (AU) interest free loan for an upgrade of the island airport).
June 2005 the first Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Norfolk Island Private Sector Business Survey was taken. The results were:
number of businesses: 338
No. of employees: 1,267
Total incomes of businesses surveyed: 94.1 million AUD
Total profit of businesses surveyed: 13.5 million AUD
Tourism related businesses predominate the economy in 2005 and represent 71% of all business income on the island and are 68% of private sector employment.
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Ready mix concrete
Sale of stamps by Philatelic Bureau, Norfolk Island Pine seed, Kentia palm seeds.
Tourism is the dominant industry on the island. Norfolk Air provides regular scheduled passenger services between Norfolk Island and the Australian mainland. Air New Zealand flies regularly between Auckland and Norfolk Island.
The number of visitors has increased steadily in recent years, rising from 27,224 tourist arrivals in the 1993-1994 fiscal year, to 40,221 in 2000-2001. In 2000-2001, 54.3% of the ordinary resident population over the age of 15 with jobs worked in a field primarily catering to tourists; furthermore, approximately 40% of total government revenue is derived from tourism of whom over 80% are from the Australian mainland.
However, not all is sanguine with this situation. As a 1997 independent study commissioned by the Norfolk Island government highlighted, the islands future is dangerously tied to this one industry, and must diversify. With the vast majority of tourists coming from Australia, and to a lesser extent New Zealand, the tourism industry is subject to the cycle of these countries economic situations.
Beyond tourism, there is very little economic activity on the island. Exports, in 1999-2000, were valued at $1.5 million. The major commodities exported included postage stamps, Norfolk Island Pine seeds, and Kentia palm seeds.
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Exports: $1.5 million f.o.b. (FY91/92)
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|Main Exports:||Exports - commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
Number of Airports:
The Norfolk Island Airport is located in the southwestern side of the island. It is serviced by two airlines. Norfolk Jet, a locally owned company founded in 1997, operates 2 planes: a 140-seat Boeing 737-400 and a 97-seat Fokker F100. It operates 3 flights a week from Brisbane, and 3 from Sydney. 4 flights a week depart Brisbane and Sydney. Air New Zealand, utilizing a 120-seat Boeing 737-300, operates Sunday and Wednesday flights to and from Auckland. The Norfolk Island Airport has two asphalt runways. The first is 1,950 x 46 m (6,398 x 150 ft), while the second is 1,435 x 30 m (4,708 x 98 ft).
Statistics on international air traffic:
Total international passengers: 2005-06: 62,483; 2006-07: 73,163.
Total international freight (tonnes): 2005-06: 105; 2006-07: 108.
Number of Main Ports:
There are no ports or natural harbours on Norfolk Island. All ships are unloaded by lighters, which have a maximum lift capacity of 9 tonnes, or 10 metres in length.
Total regional passengers: 2005-06: unknown.
2006-07: inbound: 13,337; outbound: 13,731.
There are 85 km of roads on Norfolk Island (90% are paved). There is no public transit on Norfolk Island. Most visitors hire cars, which are relatively inexpensive. Numerous tour companies, catering to tourists, operate on the island.
Other Forms of Transportation:
Norfolk Island is a tax haven that does not charge income tax on individuals or corporations. As the island government maintains control over taxation legislation, Australian taxes, including the GST and income tax, are not applicable to Norfolk. As such, items are regularly priced 30-40% cheaper on Norfolk Island than the Australian mainland, making it a popular shopping area for tourists.
Electricity needs serviced by six 1 MW diesel engines, via a 6.6 kV distribution system, owned and operated by the Norfolk Island government. A 2002 study funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office, indicated that there is sufficient local wind, wave, and solar energy potential to supply over 100% of total electricity needs.
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Two Australian banks, the Commonwealth Bank and the Westpac Bank, operate branches in Burnt Pine. Major credit cards are widely accepted on the island. There is one automatic teller, belonging to the Commonwealth Bank, on the island.
Norfolk Island became the first Pacific Island offshore business sector in 1966. However, the islands attempts to expand this industry have been constantly blocked by the federal government. Between 1966 and 1975 thousands of companies, including many involved in the financial sector, registered on the island in order to avoid high taxation rates on the Australian mainland. This concerned the federal government, and in 1976 the High Court of Australia unanimously ruled that the federal government had full sovereign powers over Norfolk Island, including areas of taxation, which it could choose to apply whenever it wished. This effectively killed company registration on the island. Furthermore, the fact that Australia remains hostile to offshore competition in the region has led to the disintegration of what was once a thriving offshore business sector, including a well-developed financial sector.
The communications system on Norfolk Island is well developed. There is 1 weekly newspaper (Norfolk Islander),three radio stations, including a government-owned 24 hour radio station (Radio Norfolk), and a privately owned local television broadcaster (TVN), plus 2 repeaters that air Australian programs by satellite (2005), and 2 internet service providers, Norfolk Island Data Services and the government-owned Norfolk Telecom. The internet country code is: .nf. There are 96 internet hosts (2007) and 700 users ( 2002 est.) Norfolk has 2,400 telephone lines, with a satellite earth system handling international communications. Mail services are handled by the Norfolk Post, which gained full control of the service in 1947. There are The Norfolk Island Philatelic Bureau issues its own postage stamps.
Norfolk Island is a cell phone-free environment. After receiving approval for over $1 million in funding from the federal government for a project to extend cellular phone service to the island, a referendum was held in August 2002 in which the majority of residents expressed opposition to their introduction.
The government is heavily involved in the Norfolk economy. For example, in 1995-1996 28.4% of the total government revenue was derived from the Liquor Bond, Post Office, Norfolk Telecom (telephone and internet services), and the Electricity Service.
Of 3,455 total ha, 1,700 ha are freehold, 1,010 ha are Crown leasehold, and 745 ha are designated for roads, commons, and public reserves. There is one National Park: Norfolk Island National Park (650 ha). This park is divided into 2 sections: the Mount Pitt section covers 460 ha, while the Phillip Island section covers 190 ha. The Norfolk Island Botanic Garden encompasses 5.5 ha.
In an effort to discourage non-resident landownership, non-resident landowners are taxed at a higher rate, as specified in the Absentee Landowners Act 1976.
The island exports a variety of agricultural products, such as Norfolk Island Pine seed, Kentia palm seeds, and coffee beans. The island is self-sufficient in its production of vegetables,fruit, poultry, eggs, and cattle.
Maritime claims: 12 nautical miles. Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nautical miles. Australia maintains jurisdiction over the marine area surrounding Norfolk Island, despite opposition from members of the Norfolk Island community who note that there is a high probability of mineral deposits offshore, as well as valuable fishing stocks.
There is a tourism aspect to fishing as well, with four commercial fishing tour operators on the island providing regular tours to the rock shelf surrounding Norfolk Island to give visitors the opportunity to experience deep sea fishing. Species caught on these expeditions include trumpeter, rock cod, snapper, grouper and trevally.
There is an ongoing struggle regarding Norfolk Island sovereignty. As a territory of Australia, it is subject to the countrys legislation. The Norfolk Island government and the vast majority of the population steadfastly resist Australias repeated attempts to standardize the islands legislation. Economic diversification.
Parliamentary democracy (responsible government), with a ministerial system. Norfolk Island Government: governed by a unicameral parliament. Legislative Assembly: consists of 9 members, elected at large. The Administrator appoints 4 of the elected members to the Executive Council/Ministry. The Administrator acts upon the advice of the Assembly, who usually advise that the positions go to the candidates that receive the most votes. In the first meeting of the Legislative Assembly after the general election, the elected members select a Chief Minister, who doubles as the President of the Legislative Assembly. A Deputy is also selected. Public servants cannot serve in the executive, but can serve as the Speaker of the Assembly. Administrator: the senior Commonwealth representative in Norfolk Island. Appointed by the Australian Governor General, the Administrator is based out of Kingston, and resides in Government House. The Administrators role is three-fold: s/he acts as the Crown representative on the island; s/he acts as the federal governments representative on the island; s/he exercises statutory functions conferred to the Office by the Norfolk Island Act 1979 and various federal laws. The Administrator is required to follow ministerial advice, except in cases where the officeholder is not satisfied with the legality or propriety of the recommended action, in which case s/he may reject the advice. Justice System: There are two judicial branches. Court of Petty Sessions: hears criminal cases, punishable by fine or summary conviction. The court may also hear minor civil matters. 3 magistrates, appointed from the Australian Capital Territory Courts and the island, sit during the hearing. The Court of Petty Sessions has jurisdiction over family court matters. Norfolk Island Supreme Court: hears appeals from the Court of Petty Sessions. The Governor General appoints judges to the Supreme Court. It also has jurisdiction over serious criminal matters and civil cases with claims in excess of $10,000. A jury of Norfolk Islanders may hear criminal matters. The Supreme Court may sit in Norfolk Island, New South Wales, Victoria, or the Australian Capital Territory when hearing a non-criminal matter, although criminal matters must be heard on the island. The Federal Court of Australia is the court of appeal for the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island. Associated Power: Australia. Norfolk Island legislature has the power to legislate over all matters, with the exception of coinage, the raising of defence forces, the acquisition of property on other than just terms, and euthanasia, which are areas reserved for the Commonwealth government. Federal governments role is to defend the island, protect individual rights, encourage sustainable development, ensure environment and cultural heritage protected, and look after its interests locally and internationally.
Political Parties: There are no political parties on Norfolk Island. Elections: Elections for the 9-member Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly are held a maximum 3 years apart. The first past the post electoral system was abandoned in 1979, replaced by the Illinois system in which each elector casts as many votes as there are vacancies, with a maximum of 4 votes going to a single candidate. The island serves as a single electorate. All persons are eligible for placement on the electoral role that are over the age of 18, provided they have been present on the island for 900 days of the 4 years immediately preceding, regardless of citizenship. All eligible voters are required to vote in elections and referenda. Norfolk Island residents holding Australian citizenship are eligible to vote in federal elections, although the island does not form its own riding. Involvement in federal elections is widely discouraged by the island government, who see involvement in federal elections as a pretext to extending federal taxation to the island.
Australian Wastelands Act of 1855: This Act of the Imperial Parliament established Norfolk Island as a separate entity from Van Diemans Land. It also provided arrangements to create a separate island government. Education Act 1931: Regulates education system within the island, including the establishment of schools, teacher qualifications, and government funding of system. Absentee Landowners Levy Act 1976: Establishes levy for individuals owning property, but residing for less than one-half of the year on Norfolk Island. It is a protectionist tariff aimed at preserving local ownership of the small land. Norfolk Island Act 1979: Passed by the Australian federal government, this legislation serves as the constitutional basis of Norfolk Islands self-government. It establishes the islands Legislative Assembly, its executive administration, and a professional public service, and defined their varying powers. Also establishes powers held by the island government, including health services, customs, immigration, and quarantine, as well as the Norfolk Island Supreme Court and island system of laws. Immigration Act 1980: Repealed existing Australian legislation and established powers to control entry and residency for the Norfolk Island government.
Exempt from federal taxation. There are a variety of import duties: 6% food and butane gas, 10% clothing, fuel, 15% motor cycles, 15% or $1,000 (whichever greater) for motor vehicles, 20% beer, 25% wine, 30% spirits. Indirect tax system: fuel levy of 20¢/litre, waste management levy of 12¢/kg by airfreight or $15/cubic metre by seafreight, departure tax $30A, tourist accommodation cold bed tax $1.00/bed plus licence fees, licensed premises pay additional 6% on alcoholic beverages, financial institution levy for deposits 1%, Absentee Land Owners levy 2% on unimproved value of land.
Commonwealth of Australia
Norfolk Island has no international status separate from Australia. As such, Australia is responsible for handling international treaties on the islands behalf. Norfolk Island has been a member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association since 1980.
Population (by year): 2,037 (2001); 1,772 (1996); 1,912 (1991). (The figures represent the population of ordinarily resident population, which differs from permanent population insofar that the latter includes residents and with or awaiting the receipt of a temporary entry permit.)
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Population (by age): <15: 411; 15-64: 1,360; >64: 266 (2001).
Deaths occurring on Norfolk Island are excluded from the Australian Bureau of Statists reports due to the geographic definition of Australia. Deaths of Norfolk Island usual residents which occur in Australia (or en-route to Australia) and are registered in an Australian state or territory are included in the cause of deaths collection.
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Approximately one-half are descended from Pitcairn immigrants. Also Australian, New Zealanders, Polynesian.
Residents descended from Pitcairn settlers tend to be considerably more opposed to integration with Australia than others.
English (official), Norfolk (pidgin language similar to Pitkern);
Church of England (34.9), Catholic (11.7), Uniting Church (11.2), Seventh Day Adventist (2.8), Australian Christian Churches (2.4), Jehovahs Witness (0.9), Other Christian (2.7), Non-Christian (1.0), No Religion (18.1), Not Stated (14.3) (2001).
Education falls under the Norfolk Island Education Act 1931. It is fully funded by the island government, which provides a budget in excess of $2 million/year (including bursaries and scholarships). Norfolk Island Central School, located in Middlegate, handles kindergarten to grade 12, beginning at age 5. Approximately 300 students are enrolled. Education is compulsory ages 5-15, although most continue longer. There are 20 teachers, 8 handling kindergarten to year 6, and 12 serving secondary. Other staff includes a counsellor/support teacher for learning difficulties, 1 information technology/vocational education/librarian, and 2 part-time relief teachers. The clerical staff includes 1 senior school assistant, 2 clerks/teacher aides, and 1 librarians assistant. Norfolk Island follows the New South Wales curriculum, and contracts the New South Wales Department of Education to supply teachers. There is a separate pre-school, the Banyan Park Playcentre, which was established by parents.
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Under Australias Norfolk Island Act 1979, responsibility for health services on the island is assigned to the island government. Consequently, Commonwealth legislation for health and aged care, as well as health insurance, does not apply to Norfolk Island. Furthermore, it is noted that the standards of care and facilities on the island lag behind Australia. The Norfolk Island Healthcare Scheme was established to meet catastrophic medical costs incurred by residents. All ordinarily resident persons over 18 must pay a public health insurance levy of $250 every 6 months, unless they meet criteria for exemption. It covers family medical costs in excess of $2,500/financial year (1 July-30 June), including hospital, medical, and outpatient treatment, diagnostic, laboratory and specialist services in Norfolk Island; hospital accommodation and treatment in New Zealand or Australia when referred to a public hospital there. There is a $200/financial year limit per individual on physiotherapist, chiropractor, and chiropodist fees, and a $200 limit/financial year per individual on transportation, which includes local and overseas ambulances. The Norfolk Island Healthcare Scheme does not cover dental services, accidents, or illnesses that begin overseas, elective or cosmetic treatment or surgery, pre-existing illnesses or injuries for new members. Membership in the scheme is open to anyone who intends to reside in Norfolk Island for over 120 days. The major health centre on the island is the Norfolk Island Hospital. The hospital is a corporate body, established under the Norfolk Island Hospital Act 1985, and overseen by a Board that consists of a Director and 6 members (serving 3 year terms). The Board advises the Executive Member for Health on hospital operations. Norfolk Island Hospital is a business enterprise, subsidized by taxpayers. There are two doctors both general practitioners a dentist, a nursing staff, an x ray department, pathology and age-care facility, an operating theatre, and a pharmacy that is staffed by a qualified pharmacist.
HISTORY AND CULTURE
While there is evidence that the island was first inhabited by Polynesians or Melanesians, it was vacant upon its discovery by Captain Cook in 1774. It was first peopled by the British in 1788 as a convict settlement, which was abandoned and relocated on Van Diemans Land (Tasmania) in 1814. A second convict settlement was established in 1825, which lasted for thirty years. The modern history of Norfolk began in 1856. Noting that the British Pacific island of Pitcairns population had outgrown its limited geography, Queen Victoria invited the islanders to relocate to the significantly larger, less isolated, and otherwise unoccupied Norfolk Island. The 193 Pitcairn Islanders relocated, bringing their customs and traditions with them to their new home. Consequently, one-half of the current Norfolk population trace their origins to the Pitcairn emigrants. Norfolk Island has been engaged in a longstanding feud with the Australian government. According to the islanders, the British government granted sovereignty over Norfolk to the Pitcairn emigrants. According to Australia, the territory was never ceded to the emigrants; rather, the new inhabitants simply received land grants. Upon creation of Norfolk Island as an entity separate from Van Diemans Land from 18441856 the two islands formed one administrative unit the Governor of New South Wales was assigned responsibility as the first Governor of Norfolk Island. The Governor quickly moved to impose a series of 39 laws, which conflicted with the simplified legal system the inhabitants had developed while living on Pitcairn Island. Major changes occurred in 1897 when the locally elected magistrate was replaced by a Crown appointment. Daily executive and judicial powers were removed from the local population and placed in the hands of external officials. Further legislation was passed in 1911 and 1914 to assign government control of Norfolk Island to the newly created Commonwealth of Australia; likewise, an Administrator appointed by Australia replaced the Governor. Norfolks subsequent history has been dominated by Australian efforts to garner further control of the island, always resisted by the residents. In 1976 the High Court of Australia unanimously ruled that the country had full powers of sovereignty over Norfolk Island. Also in 1976, the Sir John Nimmo-headed Royal Commission into Matters Relating to Norfolk Island released its report which stated that Norfolk Island should be completely integrated into Australias political and taxation systems, Norfolk should become part of the Canberra federal riding, and the islands only government would be a local council. This measure was widely rejected, and fiercely protested, by the Norfolk Island population. Opposition to Nimmos report resulted in the Norfolk Island Act 1979, which enshrined the island as a largely self-governing jurisdiction that did not elect representatives to the Australian federal parliament. This included the creation of a nine-member elected parliament, the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly, as well as its own legal system and public administration.
In 1990 and 1991 there was a renewed effort by a group of federal politicians to bring Norfolk Island into the Australian federal system. This sparked a referendum on the island, held on 4 December 1991, in which 81% of voters (801 of 986 ballots cast) opposed being integrated into the Canberra federal system. The Australian government proposed that only Norfolk Islanders with Australian citizenship should be allowed to run for, or vote for, the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly. This was foiled, and the lone concession was that Australian citizens who wished to vote in federal elections were granted the right to do so. The residents opposition to joining the federal electoral system is that they viewed it as a pretext to the imposition of federal income tax. In 1998-1999 the Australian government once again created legislation to restrict on-island voting to Australian citizens. The bill was subsequently defeated on 9 March 2000 in the Australian Senate. Its defeat came amidst considerable opposition to the bill. On 26 August 1998 a referendum was held, with 78% of voters opposed to Australia making any changes to the Norfolk Island electoral process; another referendum was held on 13 May 1999, and 72% of voters opposed the Australias specific proposal. Under the auspices of the Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, in 2002 the issue of restricting voting in Norfolk Island elections and referendums to Australian citizens was once again raised. The Commonwealth Minister, the Honourable Wilson Tuckey, publicly announced that the federal government would follow this recommendation and introduce amendments to the Norfolk Island Act 1979 in order to bring the islands electoral policy in line with Australias. The Norfolk Island governments view remains that if any changes are made to its governance, such change should be implemented by the Norfolk Island legislation. Furthermore, the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly established a Select Committee to garner the community view on this issue, as well as a wider range of island governance issues.
Recent Significant Events:
In 1999 the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission released a report, finding that Norfolk Islands immigration legislation violates Australias protection of liberty of movement and freedom of choice of residence. It stated that Norfolk Islands immigration laws must be replaced by Australias Migration Act 1958 and that the island governments power to pass legislation on immigration be revoked; furthermore, it was stated that Norfolk was not justified in establishing its own immigration legislation because it was not necessary to protect the islands environment or Pitcairn heritage/culture.
Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
The Kingston and Arthur's Vale Historic Area (KAVHA) on Norfolk Island is anexample of a cultural landscape with heritage and social values and is listed on the National Heritage List. KAVHA is jointly managed by the Federal and Norfolk Island Governments.
There are three museums located in the Kingston and Arthur's Vale Historic Area.
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Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/fed_govt_role.htm March 3, 2005. Flight Info, Norfolk Island. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkisland.com.au/flightinfo/flichtinfo.cfm February 28, 2005. General Information, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/general.htm March 3, 2005. Government, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/government.htm March 3, 2005. Government Structure, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/govt_structure.htm February 25, 2005. Healthcare, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/healthcare.htm February 25, 2005. Historical Events, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/history.htm March 3, 2005. History and Culture, Norfolk Island. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkisland.com.au/HistoryAndCulture/today.cfm February 27, 2005. Holden, Constance, Researchers Probe a Genetic Bounty, Science Now, 2 June 2000. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, February 25, 2005. Ingram, Derek, Norfolk Island, Round Table, 00358533, October 1997, Issue 344. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, February 25, 2005. Inquiry into Norfolk Island Governance, Parliament of Australia Joint Committee. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NorfolkGov/index.htm February 27, 2005. In the pink or in the red? Inquiry into the provision of health services on Norfolk Island, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/report/norfolkhealth/fullreport.pdf February 27, 2005. Island Fauna, Norfolk Island. 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Norfolk Island Electoral Matters, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, June 2002. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NICitizenshipRe-Referral/Norfolkindex.htm February 27, 2005. Norfolk Island Gaming Authority. Retrieved from http://www.nlk.nf/gaming/ February 28, 2005. Norfolk Island Government Administration Service, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/adminstruct.htm February 25, 2005. Norfolk Island Intl, WorldAeroData.Com. Retrieved from http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=NF19741 February 27, 2005. Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden: Plans of Management, Environment Australia, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deh.gov.au/parks/publications/pubs/norfolk_plan.pdf February 27, 2005. Norfolk Island Philatelic Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.stamps.gov.nf/index.html February 28, 2005. Norfolk Island Police Service, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/police.htm February 26, 2005. Norfolk Island: Recent Economic Performance, Present Situation, And Future Economic Viability: Is There A Case For Change?, Access Economics Pty Ltd, March 1997. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NorfolkGov/Economicperform.pdf February 27, 2005. Norfolk Island Renewable Energy Pre-Feasibility Study Stage 1 Summary Report, Hydro Tasmania, October 2003. Retrieved from http://www.ni.net.nf/pdfs/Norfolk%20Island%20Feasibility%20Study%20Rev%209.pdf May 3, 2005. Norfolk Island Select Committee The Reason Why, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.norfolk.gov.nf/select_committee%20the%20reason%20why.htm February 27, 2005. Norfolk Island Statutory Appointments, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/stat_boards.htm February 25, 2005. Norfolk Island Telecom. Retrieved from http://www.ni.net.nf/ February 26, 2005. Norfolk Jet. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkjet.com.au/ February 27, 2005. Norfolks Relationship with the United Nations, Norfolk Island: The Website. Retrieved from http://www.pitcairners.org/government4.html March 10, 2005. Qui custodiet ipsos custodies? Inquiry into Governance on Norfolk Island, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, December 2003. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NorfolkGov/report/fullreport.pdf February 27, 2005. Renewable Remote Power Generation Programme (RRPGP), Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Greenhouse Office. Retrieved from http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/rrpgp/ May 3, 2005. Report on Norfolk Island, 1997, chapter 9, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NorfolkGov/chapter9.pdf February 27, 2005. Rickard, John, Norfolk Island, Australian Historical Studies, 1031461X, April 1995, Vol. 26, Issue 104. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, February 25, 2005. Role of the Administrator, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/administrator.htm March 3, 2005. Role of the Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/jsc.htm March 3, 2005. Shipping to Norfolk Island, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/shipping.htm February 25, 2005. Tax Free Shopping, Norfolk Island. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkisland.com.au/shopping/index.cfm February 28, 2005. Technical Details of Norfolk Telecom, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/Technical%20telecom.htm February 26, 2005. Terms of Reference, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/ncet/NorfolkGov/tor.htm February 27, 2005. Territorial Limits: Norfolk Islands Immigration Act and human rights, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [Australia], March 1998. Retrieved from http://www.hreoc.gov.au/pdf/human_rights/norfolk_island.pdf February 27, 2005. The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/newgeneration/cpa.html February 25, 2005. The Norfolk Island Hospital, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/Hospital.htm February 26, 2005. The Norfolk Island Media, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/our_media.htm February 25, 2005. The Office of Curator of Deceased Persons, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.norfolk.gov.nf/decdpersons.htm February 28, 2005. van Fossen, Anthony, Norfolk Island and Its Tax Haven, Australian Journal of Politics & History, 00049522, June 2002, Vol. 48, Issue 2. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, March 6, 2005. Voting and Elections, Australian Government Department of Transport and Regional Services. Retrieved from http://www.dotars.gov.au/terr/norfolk/voting.htm March 3, 2005. What You Need To Know, Norfolk Island. Retrieved from http://www.norfolkisland.com.au/need_to_know/index.cfm February 27, 2005. Works Depot Norfolk Island Administration, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/works.htm February 26, 2005. Youth Advisory Council. Retrieved from http://www.nlk.nf/youthcouncil/home.htm February 26, 2005. Youth Advisory Council Act 2000, Norfolk Island Homepage. Retrieved from www.norfolk.gov.nf/YouthAdvisCounBill00.doc February 26, 2005. Youth Assembly. Retrieved from http://www.nlk.nf/youthassembly/index.html February 26, 2005.
CIA World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nf.html. Updated Feb. 12, 2008.
Norfolk Island Tourism website: http://www.norfolkisland.com.au/.Feb 21, 2008.
Australian government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Arts: http://www.environment.gov.au/parks/norfolk/index.html. Feb. 21, 2008.
Australian government Attorney-General's Department: http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/TerritoriesofAustralia_NorfolkIsland_AdministratorofNorfolkIsland_AdministratorofNorfolkIsland. Feb. 21, 2008.
Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics. Australian Government, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. Aviation Statistics: Airport Traffic Data 1997098 to 2006-07. Commonwealth of Australia 2007. http://www.bitre.gov.au/publications/90/Files/AirportPublication2006-07.pdf.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2004-05 Norfolk Island Business Statistics. June 22, 2006. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/B12A93953A54388FCA257194001370F8/$File/81390_2004-05.pdf.
Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/33a109e2dcda21dfca2570920021012a/4fc2e45fa041c764ca256bd000284a93!OpenDocument
Updated Feb. 15, 2008.