Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after Sardinia and Sicily. The Turkish Republic of North Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey, which Turkey considers a separate state. The full name of North Cyprus is, The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or T.R.N.C.. In Turkish, Northern Cyprus is known as K.K.T.C., Kuzey Kibris Türk Cumhuriyeti.
The total area of the island of Cyprus is approximately 9,252 sq km, but North Cyprus covers a total area of 3,515 sq km or nearly one third of the whole island. It is some 242 km wide and 64 km deep approximately at its extreme points. Since the division of Cyprus in 1974, the Turkish Cypriots have lived in the northern part of the island while Greek Cypriots live in the south. The sea coast of TRNC is 396 km; this comprises 50.6% of the total coastline of the Island of Cyprus.
Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. Cyprus lies 50 km from Turkeys southern coast. Other neighbouring countries are Syria (97 km), Lebanon (38 km), Egypt (307 km), Israel (58 km), and Greece (106 km).
Latitude and Longitude:
Between latitudes 33 and 36 north and longitudes 31 and 35 east
Total Land Area:
Variable climate depending on the season. Average temperatures throughout the summer are between 26 and 34 degrees Celsius. Temperatures in the winter range from 8 to 15 degrees Celsius. Annual rainfall increases (500mm to 1,000mm) as you move towards the mountainous regions.
Minerals consisting of cuprous and iron pyrites, chrome iron ore, manganese ore, gypsum, and lime.
Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization.
|Per Capita GDP:|
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|% of Population Employed by Sector|
North Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish government. Under the 2003-06 economic protocol, Ankara plans to provide around $550 million to the TRNC.
Turkey contributes significant amounts of aid to Northern Cyprus. The island's economy is dependent on manufactured export-driven goods and agriculture. These two areas are where Turkey is most influential. Assistance from Turkey is crucial to the Turkish-Cypriot economy.
Under the latest economic protocol (signed January 3, 1997), Turkey undertakes to provide Turkish Cypriots loans totaling $250 million for the purpose of implementing projects included in the protocol related to public finance, tourism, banking, and privatization. Fluctuation in the Turkish lira, which loses about 50% of its value against the U.S. dollar every year, continues to exert downward pressure on the Turkish Cypriot standard of living.
Historically, Northern Cyprus derived most of its income from agriculture. Today, the economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector including the public sector, trade, tourism and education, with smaller agriculture and light manufacturing sectors. It should be noted that tourism is being increasingly turned to as a major source of revenue.
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) law states that all nationals of other countries not being of the TRNC require a work permit in order to work in Northern Cyprus.
Although the Turkish Cypriot area operates on a free-market basis, the lack of private and governmental investment, shortages of skilled labor and experienced managers, plus inflation and the devaluation of the Turkish lira continue to plague the economy. A Greek-Cypriot-organized economic boycott of the Turkish Cypriot region also has negatively affected the Turkish Cypriot economy (2008).
|Year:||Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)|
North Cypruss economy is service based, relying on revenue from customs/duties, tourism, higher education, and trade incomes.
Major Industries: tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products
Agriculture is an important component of the Northern Cyprus economy, where the main products are citrus fruits, grapes and vine products, potatoes, and other vegetables. Manufacturing, construction, distribution and other services are the major employers.
Tourism is the main growth industry and a source of foreign exchange.
North Cyprus is seeking to diversify its export markets and now sells almost half its exports to the Middle East. The trading account continues in deficit and is offset by invisible earnings, mainly from tourism, foreign aid and development loans (mainly from Turkey), capital inflow, and income derived from those working in South Cyprus, British Sovereign Base Areas and the U.N. personnel.
Tourism continues to be the priority sector and one of the main factors of economic development. Approximately 300,000 tourists had visited North Cyprus last year. For the year 2003, 11.3% of the Economically Active Population (EAP), 11,088 persons were employed in the trade-tourism sector. During the same year, the sector contributed to the GDP by 16% and the tourism earnings comprised a significant portion (US$178.8 million) of the total foreign earnings for the same year. The share of tourism investments in total fixed investments has moved from a low of 1.1% in 1986 to 7% in 2003 (in 1977 prices). This is reflected by the rise in hotel bed capacity in North Cyprus from 3,265 in 1977 to 10,916 in 2003. During the same period the number of accommodation establishments leaped from mere 46 to 123.
|Imports and Exports:|
Northern Cyprus has had a negative balance of trade for the past five years.
Tot. Value of Imports: 477,800,000 USD (2003);
From Turkey: 299,300,000 USD (2003);
From EU: 115,000,000 USD (2003);
From UK: 49,300,000 USD (2003);
From Middle East: 12,700,000 USD (2003);
From USA: 3,700,000 USD (2003);
Tot. Value of Exports: 50,800,000 USD (2003);
To Turkey: 22,900,000 USD (2003);
To EU: 12,600,000 USD (2003);
To UK: 11,900,000 USD (2003);
To Middle East: 3,800,000 USD (2003);
|Tot. Value of Imports||477,800,000.00 USD (2003)|
|Import Partners (EU:)||Turkey is the main trading partner of the "T.R.N.C.," supplying 55% of imports and absorbing 48% of exports.
In a landmark case, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled on July 5, 1994, against the British practice of importing produce from Northern Cyprus based on certificates of origin and phytosanitary certificates granted by "T.R.N.C." authorities. The ECJ decision stated that only goods bearing certificates of origin from the Government of Cyprus could be recognized for trade by EU member countries. That decision resulted in a considerable decrease of Turkish Cypriot exports to the EU: from $36.4 million (or 66.7% of total Turkish Cypriot exports) in 1993 to $24.7 million in 1996 (or 35% of total exports) in 1996. Even so, the EU continues to be the "T.R.N.C.'s" second-largest trading partner, with a 24.7% share of total imports and 35% share of total exports.
|Partners Outside EU:|
|Tot. Value of Exports||50800000 USD (2003)|
|Partners Outside EU::|
|Main Imports:||Food and live animals, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, beverages and tobacco, mineral fuels, lubricants.|
|Main Exports:||Agricultural products (including processed products), citrus, potatoes, industrial products, clothing.|
Number of Airports: 2
Since North Cyprus is not recognized as an independent state, all the airplanes flying to North Cyprus must first land in Turkey and then continue flight to the Ercan International Airport in North Cyprus which services 3 airlines. They are: Turkish Airlines, Cyprus Turkish Airlines, and First Choice Airways. There are more than 90 flights per week arriving at North Cyprus' Ercan International Airport in the summer. If you wish to take a flight form UK to North Cyprus there are around 20 flights from these main airports: London, Stansted, Gatwick and Heathrow. Cyprus has direct air links only from Turkey, requiring all planes to first stop in either Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana or Anatolia before continuing to North Cyprus (flight times from these airports range from 60 to 90 minutes).
Number of Main Ports:
There are four ports from which regular ferries between TRNC and Turkey are available. TRNC sea ports had been declared closed to all shipping by the Republic of Cyprus since the Turkish invasion in 1974. Turkey however ignores this declaration while TRNC-registered vessels have free access to Turkish sea ports (Note: In retaliation for the closure order, Turkey also refuses Cypriot-flagged ships to enter Turkish territorial waters.)
Direct flights to the TRNC are forbidden by the Republic of Cyprus (Southern Cyprus). The airports in the TRNC are only recognised by Azerbaijan and Turkey, so all flights to the north must be routed through those countries first. North Cyprus can be reached from the South part of the island via Larnaca airport. European Union citizens who do not wish to come to Northern Cyprus via Turkey can journey to the North from a number of flights arriving to the Larnaca airport in the Southern part of the island. The flights from European counties to Larnaca are usually direct flights. There are about 20 airways serving Larnaca airport from all over the world. EU citizens are not required to have visas when visiting Cyprus, including Northern Cyprus. The checkpoint between the Southern and Northern parts of the island can be reached in 30 to 40 minutes.
There are frequent bus services between the major towns of North Cyprus during the day. Public transport is less regular in the evenings and weekends. Taxis are readily available.
Other Forms of Transportation:
Bicycles can be rented.
Plans to establish industrial free zones to attract foreign investment for exportable commodities have been implemented and are working successfully. Exemption from Custom Duties and Funds. Importation of machinery and equipment for an investment project are exempt from every kind of custom duty, in accordance with the Incentive Certificate. Regulations on importation of raw materials and semi-finished goods are specified by the "Prime Ministry" and subject to the approval of the "Council of Ministers."
Other Tax Allowances. (a) A 50 percent allowance if given on the Initial Investment Allowance. This rate can increase up to 100 percent for priority sectors and regions, with a "Council of Ministers" decision. (b) Annual wear and tear allowances for machinery and equipment (10 percent); motor vehicles (15-25 percent); industrial buildings and hotels (4 percent); shops and residences (3 percent), furniture and fixtures (10 percent). (c) Other tax allowances include a VAT exemption for exports of all goods and services and a 20 percent exemption from corporate tax for exports of goods and services(2008).
|Year||Total Energy Production (Mwh)||Thermic (Mwh)||Geothermic (Mwh)||Other (Mwh)||Total Energy Consumption (Mwh)||Domestic (Mwh)||Commercial (Mwh)||Public Service (Mwh)||Industry (Mwh)||Public Lighting (Mwh)|
Turkish New lira (YTL)
Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions: 25
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies: 3
There is no restriction for the import of foreign currency into Northern Cyprus, however, the export of currency is restricted to US-dollars 8000, or the equivalent in other currencies.
Turkish Cypriot authorities have instituted a free market in foreign exchange and authorize residents to hold foreign-currency denominated bank accounts. This encourages transfers from Turkish Cypriots living abroad (2008).
In recent years banks have expanded their activities beyond traditional banking and their services include insurance, leasing, hire purchase finance, factoring, mutual fund management, investment and consulting as well as custody and asset management services. They have also developed new products and services through electronic means or electronic access, using alternative distribution channels such as the internet, call centers, etc.
E-commerce is not a notable contributor to the local economy.
The TRNC constitution guarantees the right of private property without distinguishing between citizens and aliens. In recent years there have been cases of expropriation of pre-1974 Greek Cypriot properties in the north. Turkish Cypriot authorities consider these properties "state-owned."
The main forests of the "TRNC" were in the areas of Lapithos, Bellapais, Buffavento, Kantara, and Kartal--all located along the Kyrenia (Girne) Range. Forests located on the northern slopes of the Kyrenia Range were a mixture of pine and Mediterranean cypress. Forests on the southern slopes of the Kyrenia Range and in the Karpas Peninsula were mostly olive brush and tamarisk. Cedar and golden oak (both endemic to Cyprus), plane, and alder were also found in the "TRNC," as were species of eucalyptus and acacia.
Agriculture is an important component of the Northern Cyprus economy, where the main products are citrus fruits, grapes and vine products, potatoes, and other vegetables. Agricultural products (including processed products), citrus and potatoes are main exports.
Fishing is considered a major potential growth area for the TRNC. The sea coast of TRNC is 396 km; this comprises 50.6% of the total coastline of the Island of Cyprus. The annual fish production in North Cyprus in 1996 was 450 tons, i.e. 2.5 Kgs / per person / year.
In the waters of TRNC, large migratory pelagic fish, namely Blue-fin, Tunny, Bullet Tuna, Swordfish, and Amberjack are found in sufficient numbers.
Nicosia is the capital city of North Cyprus. Nicosia is the center of administrative district, and currently the only divided capital in the world. The northern Turkish and southern Greek portions are divided by a "Green line", a demilitarized zone maintained by the United Nations.
Political System: The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is a democratic, secular republic based on the principles of social justice and the rule of law. The Constitution provides for a semi-presidential system with a president as the head of state, and a council of ministers composed of prime minister and 10 ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly, composed of 50 deputies elected by universal suffrage for a period of five years. Judicial power is exercised through independent courts.
The Northern Cyprus government is composed of three separate entities which are the, Executive Branch, Assembly (Legislative Power), and the Judiciary Branch.
Executive Branch: composed of the President who is elected for a period of five years. He has to be of Cypriot parentage. There is also a five-year residence qualification. He has to be over thirty years of age. He must also be a graduate of an institution of higher education. In case of vacancy in the office of President, or in case of his temporary absence, the Speaker of the Republican Assembly deputizes for him.
The President of the Republic is the Head of State. He is responsible for securing respect of the Constitution, for carrying out public affairs in an impartial, uninterrupted and orderly manner and for the continuation of the State. The President may preside over meeting of the Council of Ministers but he does not have the vote. The President is not responsible for acts committed in the execution of his official functions, but the Prime Minister and Ministers are.
The President appoints the Prime Minister from amongst deputies, he also appoints Ministers on the proposal of the Prime Minister.
He can terminate the appointment of any Minister on the request of the Prime Minister. He also has the power either to promulgate by publication in the Official Gazette, or to return, laws enacted by the Assembly. He may ask the Supreme Court, sitting as the Constitutional Court, for its opinion as to whether any law or decision of the Assembly is repugnant to, or inconsistent with, the Constitution.
Prime Minister: After the Northern Cyprus President is elected to office, the President appoints a Prime Minister whose job it is to form a government. Government is defined as the Council of Ministers that the Prime Minister must choose. Once the Prime Minister comes up with a list of potential Ministers, the list is endorsed by the President, and then approved by the Assembly. The President of the Assembly is also next in line to succeed the President if the post is held vacant unexpectedly or for a long period of time.
Legislative Assembly: exercises the legislative powers of the State. Composed of fifty deputies elected for a period of five years. The Assembly has the power to enact laws, to exercise control over the Council of Ministers and the Ministers, to debate and approve bills in connection with the budget, to give general and special amnesty, and to decide whether death penalties imposed by the courts should be carried out. It also has the power to ratify international agreements.
The Assembly may, but only by absolute majority of the total number of its members, decide on its dissolution and the holding of general elections. In case of governmental crisis, the President is empowered to dissolve the Assembly and hold new elections if and when it becomes impossible to appoint a Council of Ministers, having the support of the Assembly, within a period of sixty days. If within a period of one year the Council of Ministers cannot obtain a vote of confidence or is defeated three times by a motion of no-confidence, the President may dissolve the Assembly and decide to hold elections. The President may, after certain consultations, submit to a referendum the issue of dissolving the Assembly.
Declaration of war and authorization to send armed forces to foreign countries, or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, are rights vested in the Assembly, but if the country is the victim of sudden armed aggression and is not possible for the Assembly to convene, the President of the Republic is also able to decide on the use of the armed forces.
The Constitution provides that when a state of emergency or martial law is declared, the Council of Ministers, presided over by the President of the Republic, may issue decrees having the force of the law on matters made imperative by the state of emergency or martial law.
The Constitution also provides for the establishment of a Republican Security Council. This body will be presided over by the President of the Republic and have as its members the President of the Assembly, the Prime Minister, the Ministers of Defence, Interior and Foreign Affairs, commanders of the armed forces and police.
The Council shall submit to the Council of Ministers its views concerning decisions with regard to the formulation, establishment, and implementation of the security policy of the State, and its views on co-ordination. The matters submitted by the Security Council for consideration by the Council of Ministers shall take precedence over other agenda items.
The Judicial Branch of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has a supreme court which is the highest appellate court in the land. This court is composed of a president and seven judges. Besides the Supreme Court, the other courts of Northern Cyprus are as follows: Assize Courts, District Courts, and Family Courts.
There are seven political parties in North Cyprus. They are: the Democrat Party (DP), the Republican Turkish Party (CTP), the National Justice Party (MAP), the National Birth Party (UDP), the National Unity Party (UBP), the Communal Liberation Party (TKP), and the New Cyprus Party (YKP).
The Turkish government created the Cyprus action plan in 2001 to legally enshrine economic relations between Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). As of 2001, The TRNC became authorized to export its products to the EU and third world countries through Turkey. Prior to this agreement, the TRNC could not export its products to those countries because of the economic sanctions and embargo imposed on it. Ankara aims to improve the TRNC economy for this new policy. Under the Cyprus action plan, Turkey will not demand any taxes from TRNC products. The long-term target of the plan is to create a joint economic area between the two countries.
Republic of Turkey
North Cypriots hold the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) citizenship, however, there are distinctions between Turkish Cypriots born in Cyprus and those who have been naturalized. The distinction stems from the internationally unrecognized status of the TRNC. As a result, there are some practical challenges facing TRNC citizens not born on the island. For example, only those TRNC citizens born on the island (and with a lineage traceable to the island prior to partition) can acquire a TRNC passport. This is because naturalized TRNC citizens must use another nations passport in order to travel because their state is unrecognized internationally. However, the TRNC passport is recognized in Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC) has one embassy and three Consulates in Turkey. The embassy is in Ankara (Turkeys capital) and the Consulates are in Istanbul, Izmir, and Mersin (where TRNC has a Trade Attaché). In addition to representation in Turkey, TRNC has representation in London (England), Washington (United States), New York (United States), Brussels (Belgium), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), Baku (Azerbaijan), and Islamabad (Pakistan).
Six countries have foreign missions in North Cyprus, they are: Australia, France, Germany, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally-recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (North Cyprus). The 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south. March 2003 reunification talks failed, but Turkish-Cypriots later opened their borders to temporary visits by Greek Cypriots. On 24 April 2004, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities voted in simultaneous and parallel referenda on whether to approve the UN-brokered Annan Plan that would have ended the thirty-year division of the island by establishing a new "United Cyprus Republic"; a majority of Greek Cypriots voted "no". On 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north.
Population: 784,301 (July 2006 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.53% (2006 est.)
Population Below Poverty Line: NA%
Infant mortality rate: 7.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2006 est.)
|Island||Area (km sq.)||Population||% of Total Population|
HIV/AIDS - Adult Prevalence Rate: 0.1% (2003 est.)
|Age of Population:||0-14||15-24||25-49||50-64||65 and up|
Until 2005, the TRNC had maintained an unrestricted policy allowing for Turkish migration onto the island. However, citing social problems surrounding crime and unemployment, the TRNC government has ceased this policy and instead introduced some restrictions.
|Crude Birth Rate:|
Male: 1999: 70.9; 2000: 70.9.
Female: 1999: 75.1; 2001: 75.1.
Total Population 2006: 77.82. Males: 75.44 and Females: 80.31.
|Crude Death Rate:|
The North-Cypriot population is composed mainly of Turkish-Cypriots. However, there are significant numbers of Greek-Cypriots, as well as smaller groups of Cypriot Romanies, Armenian-Cypriots, and Latin-Cypriots. Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
Turkish is the official language on North Cyprus, however, English is widely used as well.
North-Cyprus is a secular state with no official religion. Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%
total population: 97.6%
female: 96.3% (2003 est.)
Total Pre-Schools: 147;
Total Primary Schools: 95;
Total Junior High Schools: 28;
Total Secondary Schools: 22;
Vocational & Technical Schools: 13;
Special Education Schools: 4;
Informal Education Schools: 30;
|Total Primary Schools|
|Total Secondary Schools:||22|
|Total Professional Schools||17|
|Number of Schools per Island:|
Students (2003/2004): Pre-School (4,179); Elementary (16,073); Junior School (10,061); High School (6,430); Vocational (2,260); Post Secondary (12,686 [2,150 abroad]); Special Education (120). Teachers (2003-04): Pre-School (291); Elementary (1,257); Junior School (939); High School (669); Vocational (440); Special Education (24).
In 2003, the ratio of doctors to inhabitants was 1 to 501, there was 1 dentist per 1,919 inhabitants, there was 1 nurse per 426 islanders, and there was 1 hospital bed per 175 people.
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Recent History: Under the 1878 Convention of Defensive Alliance between Britain and Turkey, Britain took over the administration of Cyprus from Turkey, although Turkey retained formal sovereignty. In 1914, when Turkey entered the First World War on the side of the Central Powers, Britain annexed Cyprus. British sovereignty was recognised by Turkey under the terms of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne and Cyprus became a Crown Colony in 1925. Following independence in 1960, tension between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots increased and culminated in serious intercommunal fighting in December 1963. From then until 1974 there were occasional outbreaks of further violence and the Turkish Cypriot minority retreated into small enclaves. A UN force was established in 1964. In 1974 Turkish troops landed in northern Cyprus following a coup on the island by extremists against the elected President, which was backed by the military junta then in power in Greece. The island has been effectively partitioned ever since and approximately 36% of the territory of the Republic is not under the control of the Government. A 'Green Line' a buffer zone dividing the two parts from the coast north west of Morphou through Nicosia to Famagusta - is patrolled by United Nations troops. Successive UN Secretaries-General have made efforts to secure a settlement to the Cyprus dispute through intercommunal talks.
Recent Significant Events:
Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
The North Cyprus Department of Antiquities and Museums is continually preserving and restoring the ancient monuments and buildings, and the six museums containing ancient artefacts. Throughout the island ancient buildings stand, including Ottoman and Venetian houses, churches, and mosques. These structures are protected under legislation enacted in 1975.
Traditional Cypriot music, folk-dancing and crafts are displayed at the annual summer festivals. Of particular interest are the beautifully designed embroidery and lace-making, pottery and kilim weaving.
TRNC State Planning Organization:
North Cyprus arts and culture: http://www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/culture/index.html. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Official Webpage: http://www.trncgov.com/index.shtml North Cyprus Online: http://www.northcyprusonline.com Distance Calculator: http://www.mapcrow.info Central Intelligence Agency World Fact Book: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cy.html Foreign & Commonwealth Office Country Report http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1019233785265 Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus Simogen Development http://www.simogendevelopment.com/NorthCyprus.php United States Department of State http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5376.htm Hellenic Resources Network http://www.hri.org/news/cyprus/tcpr/2005/05-11-14.tcpr.html#05 Turkish Press Review http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/08/01x08x17.HTM#%204 Cyprus Energy, Resource, and Mining http://www.photius.com/countries/cyprus/economy/cyprus_economy_energy_resources_and~7649.html Evergreens Development Group http://www.evergreendevelopments.com/northern_cyprus/general/trnc_geography.php Cyprus Forestry and Fishing http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-3553.html Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies http://ejbo.jyu.fi/pdf/ejbo_vol10_no2_pages_24-30.pdf Guvenlik Kuvvetleri Komutanligi http://www.mucahit.net/asal/askeralma_ENG.htm
North Cyprus arts & culture: http://www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/culture/index.html.
Global Edge. Michigan State University: http://globaledge.msu.edu/countryInsights/statistics.asp?countryID=52®ionID=2. Aug. 2007.
U.S. Department of State Country Background Notes. Feb. 2008: http://www.hri.org/docs/USSD-Background/Cyprus.98-10.html.