Jurisdiction Project

Nunavut (Baffin Island)

Overview:
The largest and newest territory of Canada, Nunavut means “our land” in Inuktitut, the Inuit language. Nunavut was officially separated from the vast Northwest Territories of Canada on April 1, 1999 as a result of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. The creation of Nunavut marked the first major change to Canada’s map since the incorporation of the new province of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949.

Territory:
Nunavut is carved out of the Northwest Territories, the boundary follows the 60th parallel from the Saskatchewan and Manitoba border, then to the eastern reaches of the Hudson Bay, north following the territorial sea to Ellesmere Island, across the top of Canada, and south to Victoria Island, and then follows the line just west of coppermind to the 60th parallel, in total two million square kilometers, one fifth of the Canadian land mass, and two thirds of the coastal line. Nunavut has 28 communities, and is divided into three principal geographic regions. Qikiqtaaluk is the largest and includes Baffin Island area, Kivalliq includes Rankin Inlet and the NE part of Hudson’s Bay, and the Kitikmeot region includes Cambridge Bay and the central arctic. Sources: http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/Nunavut/nunavutmanage.html Total area: 2,093,190 square kilometers, land area: 1,936,113, and freshwater: 157,077

Location:
It spans more than 2 million square kilometers of Canada extending north and west of Hudson’s Bay, above the tree line to the North Pole.

Latitude and Longitude:
(see territory above)

Time Zone:
GMT -5

Total Land Area:
2

EEZ:
0

Climate:
Most of Nunavut is located above the tree line, and the area is actually an arctic desert with an average of 4 inches of precipitation a year. There is generally snow on the ground for 9-10 months of the year and it can snow during any month. Average winter temperature is - 28 C, and average summer temperature is + 10 C. Iqaluit, the capital, experiences 24 hours of daylight per day in June, and six hours per day in December.

Natural Resources:
Nunavut is believed to have the richest natural resource endowment of any jurisdiction in Canada. It has large amount of deposit of oil, gas, and various kinds of minerals include gold, lead, zinc, nickel, and copper. Petroleum resources in the territory account for 5% of Canada's known oil reserves valued at approximately $10 billion and 15% of Canada's known natural gas valued at some $70 billion.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2002 951,000,000.00 USD
2003 991,000,000.00 USD
2004 1,055,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2002 33,135.90 USD
2003 33,938.40 USD
2004 35,521.90 USD
0.00 USD
0.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2001 2% 20% 78%

External Aid/Remittances:
When negotiating Nunavut Land Claim, the Canadian government agreed to give an amount of capital transfer to Nunavut. It estimated that CDN$ 1.148 billion will be given to Nunavut government over a period of 14 years, a CDN$13 million Training Trust Fund and a share of federal government royalties for Nunavut Inuit from oil, gas and mineral development on Crown lands.

Growth:
Figures for 2000 show a positive economic climate for the territory. Nunavut showed a GDP growth of 4.5% from previous year. Mining grew by 10.1%. Much of the GDP growth can be attributed to the significant increase in construction within the territory. Investment in non-residential construction by the government more than doubled. Real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 2 percent in Nunavut, and business investment surged ahead, at an average annual rate of 18 percent. Likewise, growth in personal disposable income per person was strong, ranking above the national average. The settlement of the Nunavut Land Claim and the creation of the territory of Nunavut provide a solid and stable environment for future economic development in this picturesque and resource rich region. The land claim has clearly delineated the land ownership and the establishment of the territorial government will bring about the following:  growth of native development corporations, such as Nunasi and Qikiqtaaluk Corporation, representing concerns as varied as shrimp fishing, trucking and the hotel industry;  investment of the annual Land Claim capital transfer payments, totaling $1.15 billion, over 14 years;  development of five-year economic development programs for each region;  creation of government agencies and the training and development of a professional bureaucracy;  further development of mineral deposits which show a potential for copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc and diamonds; and  Creation of three federally funded national parks.

Labour Force:
1999 10,083

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
1999 20.7%

Industry:
Mining, fisheries (turbot, quotas, char fisheries,) shrimp fishery, Pangnirtung Fishery, hunting, trapping, tourism, arts and cultural industries. The government of Nunavut has adopted a unique collaborative approach to the development of the Nunavut economy. Nunavut’s economy is based on the harvesting traditions of its Inuit majority, which continues to maintain strong ties to the land. The harvesting economy is worth at least $40 million annually and provides many families with an affordable and important source of nutritious food. Supplementing these traditions are new opportunities, which are rapidly transforming the economy of Nunavut. In 2004, mineral exploration activity was over $150 million, up from $35 million in 1999, and created additional employment and investment opportunities for Nunavut residents and Canadians. Diamond, gold, and base metal deposits are being explored throughout Nunavut. The first diamond mine in the Kitikmeot, Jericho, is expected to be in production by 2006. Nunavut’s oil and gas reserves will in the future provide the world with a stable and safe energy source and strengthening Nunavut’s economic self reliance.

Niche Industry:
The production of Inuit art continues to play an important role in the economies of many of Nunavut’s communities. Over 27 percent of Nunavut’s population is involved at some level of arts production.

Tourism:
Residents of Nunavut are proud of their natural and cultural heritage, their strong relationship to the diverse landscape and its resources, their communities, their wildlife, and their rich and important history. The establishment of three national parks and several territorial parks presents another opportunity for visitors seeking to explore Nunavut’s extraordinary beauty. Primarily established to serve local tourism through provision of camping and recreational opportunities, territorial parks are now meeting the changing expectations of both their residents and their visitors and are serving valuable roles for conservation of habitat and biodiversity, and wildlife protection. Parks and other tourism products create more than 500 jobs for Nunavummiut as guides and outfitters; support our Arts and Crafts and other related sectors; and put millions of dollars directly into our communities and territory. The unique Inuit culture and the outstanding natural beauty of Nunavut continue to attract tourists from around the world. An estimated 18,000 people visit Nunavut annually. The range of tourism activities includes eco-tourism, sports hunting and fishing, and cultural, adventure and educational tourism activities. Cruise ships now visit four Baffin communities annually, providing an important source of income for many residents.

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TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports: 26
There are many airports in Nunavut. In the absence of roads and marine infrastructure, air links are Nunavut’s lifeline. Although each community has an airstrip, smaller communities are limited in the number and size of aircraft they can accommodate. Iqaluit Airport, Arviat Airport, Baker Lake Airport, Cambridge Bay Airport, Cape Dorset Airport, Clyde River Airport, Coral Harbour Airport, Gjoa Haven Airport, Grise Fiord Airport, Hall Beach Airport, Igloolik Airport,

Number of Main Ports:
Although Nunavut has the longest shoreline of any province or territory in Canada, and all but one of its communities are on the coast, Nunavut ahs little marine infrastructure. This hinders the territory’s ability to expand its economy, participate in a rich fishery, and strengthen its self reliance.

Internal:

Air
Air links are Nunavut’s lifeline. Most of the communities in Nunavut have an airport, and the smallest communities share an airport with the nearby community. Air Nunavut is an airline based in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. It is the only local and Inuit-owned air carrier in the eastern Arctic, operating medevac and charter services throughout Canada's Arctic, northern Quebec and Greenland. First Air, Aklak Air, and Canadian North are some of the other airlines that have scheduled flights to Nunavut.

Road:
Nunavut is lack of roads, within communities, most roads are unpaved. An estimated total of only 850 km of roads and highways are spread across the vast territory. The government is exploring potential linkages to southern Canada. Under consideration are an all weather road from the central Kivalliq region in Nunavut to Manitoba, as well as the Bathurst Inlet road and port project to access the mineral rich area of the Kitikmeot region. There is currently one winter road that provides access to the western portion of Nunavut from the Northwest Territories during the months of February to March.

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:
Snow mobiles, ATVs

Economic Zones:
There are no specific economic zones in Nunavut.

Energy Policy:
The government pays for this energy use both as a consumer and as a supplier of subsidies. Eighteen percent of the government’s budget was spent on energy in 2001, and twenty percent in 2005. “Ikuma II”, released in 2002, sets out several measures for controlling costs, reducing usage, and promoting greater self-sufficiency in energy. These include the creation of the Qulliq Energy Corporation and two subsidiaries producing electricity and delivering fuel to communities. A new Minister of Energy has been appointed with the mandate to oversee the rationalization and effectiveness of energy consumption within the territory. Finally, the government is also exploring the development of energy alternatives to reduce Nunavut’s overall dependency on oil. Moreover, Qulliq Energy Corporation (QEC) is moving forward with its initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and find alternatives to diesel fuel for electricity generation in Nunavut. QEC currently uses 13 million litres of diesel fuel to meet Iqaluit’s demand for electricity. Territory-wide Nunavut consumes 39 million litres of fuel for electricity generation. Hydroelectric generation has the potential in Iqaluit alone to displace millions of litres of diesel fuel annually. The Northern Canada Power Commission (NCPC), a federal crown corporation, has been the principal electrical utility in Nunavut. Total Energy Production: Nunavut is completely dependent on imported oil for its diesel power generation. Every drop of oil is brought in by ship or by air and stored in tanks over the winter months when the ocean freezes.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Official Currency:
Canadian dollar (CAD)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 

Financial Services:
In Nunavut, variety of financial services is available for the people in the community. Insurance for life, health, home, car and business, and banking for personal saving, chequing, investment, and so on are some of the services.

Communications/E-Commerce:
Nunavut relies exclusively on satellite networks for its bandwidth needs. This is many times more expansive than land-based, fiber optic or microwave relay bandwidth. The high cost of operating satellite-based service means that Nunavummiut do not have affordable access to broadband. The social and economic development of Nunavut depends on a reliable, affordable high-speed telecommunications network that makes communications-reliable email capable of transferring large files between users, video-conferencing, and interactive application-possible. The government is already using innovative approaches in the use of high-speed communications. The government made broadband access available in all Nunavut communities in 2005.

Public Ownership:
Very few businesses are privately owned, majority of them are owned by the territory.

Land Use:
Nunavut has little to no accessible arable land, neither permanent crop land, estimated 100% of Nunavut’s land is used for other purposes than agriculture use.

Agriculture/Forestry:
Nunavut is a land of rock, snow, ice, and sea. It is a land of forest, plains, glacial rock and frozen seas. Nunavut can be divided into two broad geographical regions:  Taiga, the boreal forest belt that circles the world in the sub-arctic zone.  Tundra, the vast, rocky plain in the Arctic regions, where the extreme climate has stunted vegetation. Because of the severe weather condition, Nunavut does not support agriculture growth.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Nunavut is successfully establishing new commercial turbot, shrimp, and char fisheries that offer global markets access to a unique range of products. The turbot fishery is a major employer in the Baffin region, with Kivalliq and Kitikmeot mainly involved in the char fisheries. With much of its commercial fishing stock still unexplored, the fishery provides an important and growing contribution to the territory’s economy. Turbot industry activities contribute to seasonal employment, in the range of 100 jobs. This accounts for between $2.1 million and $2.4 million in income for residents. Shrimp fishery: A representative of the Qikiqtaaluk Corporation (QC) raised several concerns regarding the northern shrimp fishery. In 1987, the Qikiqtaaluk Corporation was issued with both a northern shrimp licence and a joint licence shared with the Makivik Corporation of Nunavik. These licences are fished by Maritimes-based companies in long-term joint ventures in return whereby the QC receives royalties and Inuit from the region are employed on the offshore trawlers. The licences allow QC to fish in all eight shrimp fishing areas (SFAs). The benefits for the region of this arrangement are significant. In the 1997 season, 85 Inuit were employed on the offshore trawlers, earning $2.4 million in wages. The Corporation, however, faces significant increases in operating expenses. These include access fees, which have increased from around $2,000 in 1995 to over $200,000 in 1998. In addition, the shrimp industry is required to pay for DFO observer coverage. Qikiqtaaluk Corporation pointed out that these fees directly reduce the take home pay of everyone involved in the industry. The Corporation asked for access and other user fees imposed by the government to be revisited, in light of the federal government's balanced budget. The Corporation also faces major costs for air transportation of crew members. Due to their remoteness and lack of other transportation options, the 85 Inuit crew must travel by air to the Maritimes, resulting in costs of between $250,000 and $300,000 each year. The Committee agrees that the rapid increase in access fees is cause for concern. Although the Department's policy is to set access fees at a modest proportion of landed values, they may in reality represent a much greater proportion of net revenues after other operating expenses including other cost-recovery charges have been taken into account.

Marine Life:
Seal, shrimp, char, turbot, walruses, polar bear, beluga whale, seals (ringed seals, harbour seals, bearded seals, and harp seals)

Critical Issues:
One of the territory's challenges is the lack of well-developed infrastructure. There currently are no road linkages between communities. As the population grows there will be an increasing need to further develop infrastructure, particularly in key areas like housing and waste management. High unemployment rate, need for social assistance and exploring potential employment opportunities for members of the community are other critical social issues in Nunavut. The excessive high costs of living, from everyday necessity like milk and bread, to gas and accessing internet, it is very difficult for the people in Nunavut. Moreover, Nunavut has relatively low income compare with the rest of Canada. Low literacy rate is astonishing in Nunavut; half of the population does not have a high school diploma. Since literacy has direct linkage with health and economy, low literacy level has resulted in an underdeveloped community. Contamination of marine and terrestrial wildlife by toxic contaminants such as PCBs is a major and growing concern for northern residents. Many of the toxins originate from former military installations such as old DEW line sites, of which the Committee learned there are eight in the Baffin Region. Other contaminants are airborne pollutants from southern regions. Since these contaminants become more concentrated as they pass up through the food chain, they put northern residents who depend on "country foods" at high risk.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Iqaluit (on Baffin Island) was chosen capital of Nunavut in 1995, winning over Rankin Inlet (on the west shore of Hudson Bay). Iqaluit is the largest community in Nunavut. It has a population of 4,500 (17% of the population) and is located approximately 2,000 kilometres from Ottawa.

Political System:
Nunavut has a public government, which operates within the principles of Canadian parliamentary democracy. All residents of Nunavut are entitled to run for office and elect Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) on an individual rather than a party basis. Following a general election, MLAs meet the select a Premier from among the elected members. Ministers are then selected, and the Premier assigns portfolios. Government priorities are established among the ministers and the members, based on the issues identified during the election. A consensus government still requires majority support for measures it proposes. Ministers and the premier are required to consistently account and respond to members concerns as they work through the legislative and budget processes. The system blends the principles of parliamentary democracy with the Aboriginal values of maximum cooperation, effective use of leadership resources and common accountability. Nunavut shares this system with the Northwest Territories, which also has a significant Aboriginal foundation for its public government.

Political Parties:
There are no political parties in Nunavut. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected as independents and choose the Premier and Cabinet from among themselves and govern by consensus. The Honourable Paul Okalik, MLA for Iqaluit West, he is also the Premier.

Important Legislation:
Legislation concerning aboriginals: Federal legislations: Henderson's Annotated Indian Act; Indian Act Regulations; Consolidated Statutes of Canada; Consolidated Regulations of Canada; Index of Royal Commissions in Canada; Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Nunavut legislations: Statutes of Nunavut (Annual Volumes) Regulations of Nunavut Consolidated Statutes and associated Regulations prepared after April 1, 1999

Principal Taxes:
There is no Provincial Sales Tax in Nunavut, but the national 7% GST (Goods and Services Tax) applies. As well, property and related taxes, consumption taxes, investment income taxes and other taxes apply.

Associated Power:
Canada

Citizenship:
Canadian

Paradiplomacy:
Aleut International Association (AIA), Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), Northern Forum


HUMAN RESOURCES

With a median age of 22.1 years, Nunavut’s population is the youngest in Canada. It is also one of the fastest growing.

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
0 0 %

Population 2002 2003 2004 Population 28,700 29,200 29,700 Age of Population: Population by Age Group 2001 (census) 2005 Under 5 3,135 10,400 5-14 6,250 15-24 4,210 18,800 25-64 8,495 65 and above 625 800

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2001 9385 4,210 0 0 625
2005 10400 0 0 0 800

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Migration:
From July 1, 2004-June 30, 2005, Nunavut has welcomed 9 immigrants; however, it also lost 12 emigrants. Moreover, there were no returning emigrants during this period of time. And net inter-provincial migration was -296.

Crude Birth Rate:
2002 762%
2003 765%
2004 785%

Life Expedctancy:
Life Expectancy: Life Expectancy at Birth Total Males Females 2004 69.8 68.3 71.3 Crude Death Rate: Death 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 Number of deaths 129 133 138

Crude Death Rate:
2002 129%
2003 133%
2004 138%

Ethnicity:
Inuit 84.4%, all others 15.6% (2001 census) Inuit 84.4%, all others 15.6% (2001 census) Population by selected ethic origins 2001 census Total responses Single responses Multiple responses Total population 26,665 22,870 3,795 Ethnic origin Inuit 22,625 20,185 2,440 English 1,840 540 1,300 Scottish 1,475 245 1,225 Canadian 1,175 605 570 Irish 950 240 710 French 805 250 555 German 395 85 305 North American Indian 350 85 265 British, not included elsewhere 240 150 90 Ukrainian 140 50 95 Danish 105 20 85 American (USA) 100 10 95 Dutch (Netherlands) 95 20 70 Italian 95 20 70 Polish 100 15 85 Norwegian 85 10 75 Black 70 0 65 Métis 70 20 50 Welsh 65 15 50 Portuguese 45 15 35 Swedish 50 0 45 Russian 50 10 35 Chinese 45 30 10 Filipino 35 30 10 African (Black), not included elsewhere 40 10 30 European, n.i.e. 35 25 15 Hungarian (Magyar) 35 10 25 Acadian 30 15 20 East Indian 25 20 10

Class Division:
There is no obvious class division presence in Nunavut, and this is mainly due to Nunavut’s small population and community and their aboriginal identity.

Languages:
Official languages in Nunavut are: Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English and French

Religion:
Protestant 66.7%, Catholic 23.3%, Christian not included elsewhere 3.1%, other religions 0.4%, no religious affiliation 6.2% (2001) Population by religion, by provinces and territories 2001 census Total population 26,665 Catholic 6,215 Protestant 17,785 Christian Orthodox 20 Christian not included elsewhere 835 Muslim 30 Jewish 0 Buddhist 15 Hindu 10 Sikh 0 Eastern religions 65 Other religions 40 No religious affiliation 1,655

Literacy:
 Literacy levels in Nunavut remains the lowest in Canada, 50 percent of the population do not have a high school diploma, 50 percent of the those individuals have less than grade 9 education. (1999)

Education System:
Even though Nunavut does not have any university, however, it partners with a number of other Canadian universities. For example, Akitsiraq Law School, University of the Arctic (based in Finland), also Nunavut Teacher's Education with McGill University; Nursing Program with Dalhousie University; Language and Traditional Knowledge with University of Manitoba; Human Resources with University of Manitoba; Translation with McGill University; BA with Carleton University.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Population 15 years and over by highest degree, certificate or diploma. (2001 census) Total 16,680 No degree, certificate or diploma 9,890 High school graduation certificate 1,610 Trade certificate or diploma 1,680 College certificate or diploma 2,075 University certificate or diploma below bachelor level 170 Bachelor's degree 900 University certificate or diploma above bachelor level 95 Medical degree 15 Master's degree 230 Earned doctorate 20 The following lists all schools (from kindergarten to grade 12) in Nunavut:  Aqsarniit Ilinniarvik School (Elementary to Grade 7)  Attagoyuk Ilisavik School (Grades 6 to 12)  Inuksuk High School (Grades 8 to 12)  Joamie School (Kindergarten to Grade 4)  Kiilinik High School (Grades 7 to 12)  Kugaardjuq School (Kindergarten to Grade 10)  Nakasuk School (Kindergarten to Grade 6)  Netsilik School (Kindergarten to Grade 12)  Qiqirtaq Ilihakvik School (Grades 7 to 12)  Quluaq School (Kindergarten to Grade 12)  There are no clear boundaries between pre-schools, primary school and secondary schools. Total Pre-Schools: 47 licensed programs in 23 communities Total Primary Schools: First Level: Second Level: Third Level: Total Secondary Schools: Total Professional Schools: 1, Nunavut Arctic College Universities: there is no university in Nunavut Aqsarniit Ilinniarvik School is a middle school with approximately 230 students in grade 6 and 7. Attagoyuk Ilisavik School opened its doors on December 17, 1998, and it accommodated 385 students. It had 225 students on June 1, 2005 Nakasuk School has 300 students on June 1, 2005. Kugaardjuq School has 185 students enrolled in kindergarten through grade 10. Netsilik School has a staff of 23, serves a school population of 240 students from kindergarten to grade 12.

Medical Services:
The health care insurance plans of Nunavut include physician and hospital services and are administered on a non-profit basis by the Department of Health and Social Services. The Medical Care Act governs the entitlement to and payment of benefits for insured medical services. The Hospital Insurance and Health and Social Services Administration Act enable the establishment of hospital and other health services. In 1999-2000 Nunavut administered regulations governing three regions: Baffin, Kitikmeot and Kivalliq. These regional boards were disbanded as of April 1st, 2000 and integrated as part of the regional operations of the Department. In 2000-2001, insured hospital services were delivered in 26 facilities throughout Nunavut, including one general hospital located in Iqaluit and 25 community health centers. The Baffin Regional Hospital in Iqaluit is the only acute care facility in Nunavut providing a range of in-patient and out-patient hospital services, as defined by the Canada Health Act. Community health centers provide public health, emergency room services and some overnight services (observations). Medical doctors are the only medical practitioners permitted to deliver insured physician services in Nunavut. There are 123 physicians fully licensed (although not all resident within the Territory) in Nunavut who provide services to Nunavummiut. There are also various arrangements in place for visiting physicians, general practitioners and locums to provide services within Nunavut. Employment, health care and social assitance 2002 2003 2004 Employees (thousands) 1.5 1.7 2.0


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Nunavut has been occupied continuously for more than 4,000 years. Historians have identified the Baffin coast with Norse sagas, however recorded history began in 1576 when Martin Frobisher, on an expedition in search of the fabled Northwest Passage, discovered what he thought was gold on Baffin Island. The ore was worthless and Frobisher's encounters with the Inuit were not friendly. He seized four Inuit in 1576 and 1577 and took them to England where they quickly died. In 1585, John Davis, also in search of the Northwest Passage, explored Cumberland Sound. Henry Hudson followed in 1610. The Arctic Islands were transferred from Britain to Canada in 1880. In 1903 an official expedition visited the High Arctic and Cumberland Sound exerting Canadian sovereignty. Between 1906 and 1911 the Canadian government dispatched three official voyages to the High Arctic, to show the flag and collect Customs duties from whalers. The Second World War and the Cold War opened the Canadian Arctic. The United States Air Force built an airfield at Frobisher Bay, now Iqaluit, to handle aircraft transporting war materials to Europe. In 1955 construction began on the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, a joint project of Canada and the United States to create an early-warning radar chain to warn of any Soviet incursions. Inuit leaders articulated the idea for the territory with its own government in the 1970s. Canada's newest territory - Nunavut - came into being on April 1st 1999.

Referenda:
In a referendum in November 1992, 69% of the inhabitants of the future territory voted for the creation of Nunavut. A territory-wide referendum was taking place on December 11, 1995- the 1995 Nunavut Capital Plebiscite. It was to serve the purpose of selecting a capital city for the new Nunavut territory. The turnout rate for the referendum was 79 percent, and people had to choose between Iqaluit and Rankin Inlet, the result was 5,869 ballots or 59.7 percent for Iqaluit, and 3,876 or 39.4 percent for Rankin Inlet. A public vote took place on May 26, 1997 regarding “should the first Nunavut Legislative Assembly have equal numbers of men and women MLAs, with one man and one woman elected to represent each electoral district?” the result of the vote was 57 percent voted No, and 43 percent voted Yes.

Recent Significant Events:
New tool for Nunavut in 2002 – Broadband. It is a tool for high-speed telecommunication networks connecting all Nunavut communities with each other, and connecting Nunavut with the rest of the world. Nunavummi Nangminiqaqtunik Ikajuuti (NNI). This is government of Nunavut’s business incentive policy that deals with the territorial government’s Article 24 obligations under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. The NNI is intended to give Nunavut business (including Inuit business) an edge over southern contractors and suppliers and, in particular, help to boost local employment and training.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
The production of Inuit art continues to be an important part for Inuit people’s life. It is practiced in many of Nunavut’s communities. Over 27 percent of Nunavut’s population is involved at some level of arts production. Many of the Territory’s artists have received international recognition. Which most Canadians are familiar with soapstone carvings and prints from communities such as Cape Dorset and Baker Lake, internationally recognized tapestries and weavings are being produced in Pangnirtung. Nunavut artists are rapidly making a name for themselves in film, broadcasting and new media; the recent international succss of Atanarjuat – The Fast Runner highlights both the talent of Nunavut’s resident producers, and the attractiveness of Nunavut as a venue for film production. Today’s Inuit use snow-mobiles, but for not long before that, they used sleds and dog teams as main transportation, also now they live in houses, but they used to live in igloos. A favoured coat, for instance, is the amautik, a parka with an oversized hood. Women with young children like this coat because the large hood acts as a built-in baby pouch to carry their babies. Another favourite item is an ulu, a semi-circular knife that Inuit women have used for centuries and still use today to cut up seal meat. And while young children watch television, their grandmother chew a caribou skin to make it soft before turning the skin into moccasins.

Sources:

http://www.parl.gc.ca/infocomdoc/36/1/FISH/Studies/Reports/fishrp07/08-rap-e.htm#0.2.5FPCNZ.B6ZUBB.JHPN3F.P Statistic Canada http://www.statcan.ca/start.html Video, NUNAVUT, CHANGING THE MAP OF CANADA. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1995. World of Education: http://library.educationworld.net/canadafacts/nu_history.html Damas D, (2002), Arctic migrants/Arctic villagers, the transformation of Inuit settlement in the central Artic. Montreal, McGill-Queen’s University Press Aboriginal Legislation and Laws http://www.bloorstreet.com/300block/ablawleg.htm Government of Nunavut http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/English/departments/DSD/ Nunavut Planning Commission http://npc.nunavut.ca/eng/nunavut/economic.html Husky Dog http://www.huskydog.com/cahill/climate.htm Aboriginal Canada http://www.aboriginalcanada.gc.ca/acp/site.nsf/en/ao20190.html Nunavut government http://www.gov.nu.ca/ataglance.htm Arctic link http://www.pail.ca/arctic.html Nunatisiaq news http://www.nunatsiaq.com/ Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Nunavut_Capital_Plebiscite Nunavut Literacy http://www.nunavutliteracy.ca/english/resource/family/child.pdf Elections Canada http://www.elections.ca/loi/com2000/Statistics/sta03_e.html Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/ehealth-esante/infostructure/index_e.html Government of Nunavut, Department of Sustainable Development http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/English/departments/DSD/ Statcan Daily http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/051108/d051108a.htm Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements (ATNS) http://www.atns.net.au/biogs/A001503b.htm http://www.eventsonline.ca/events/spectag/confirm.htm Aqsarniit Ilinniarvik School http://www.nunanet.com/~aqsarnit/about_school.htm Nunavut Department of Education http://www.gov.nu.ca/education/eng/echild/index.htm Agriculture and Agri-food Canada http://www.agr.gc.ca/card-fcadr/information/event_report/consultation.html.0909e.phtml The Canadian encyclopedia http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002567

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