Jurisdiction Project

Prince Edward Island

Overview:
Prince Edward Island is the smallest of Canada’s ten provinces, both geographically and in terms of population. Despite continued growth, its economy remains one of the country’s most fragile, with a heavy reliance on agriculture, the fisheries, tourism, and federal transfers.

Territory:
Land: 5,684 sq. km.(1,404,547 acres) (2,184 sq. mi.). 242 km (140 mi) x 6-64 km (4-40 mi). Highest elevation 152 m (498.7 ft).

Location:
Located in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence which flows into the North Atlantic Ocean, on the East Coast of Canada. Separated from the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to the South by the Northumberland Strait.

Latitude and Longitude:
46 N, 63 W. Atlantic Time Zone.

Time Zone:
GMT -4

Total Land Area:
5684

EEZ:

Climate:
Average mean temperature: January, max. –3.3 °C, min. –12.6 °C.; July, max. 23.2 C; min. 13.8 C.
Average precipitation: January 106.4 mm; July 85.8 mm.

Natural Resources:
Fish, forests. The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration which oxidises upon exposure to the air which causes the soil's red colouring.

Many of the province's coastal communities rely upon shellfish harvesting, particularly lobster fishing as well as oyster fishing and mussel farming.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2006 4,332,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2003 20,177.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2002 7.1% 18.8% 74.1%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2002 9.5% 16.8% 73.7%

External Aid/Remittances:
External Revenue (2002/3 fiscal year): Equalization payment from federal government: $222.4 million; Canada Health and Social Transfer: $89.5 million; Total federal transfers = 35% of total provincial revenue; FY 2005/06 Total revenue: $1,170.0 million: Provincial tax: $711.1 million; total federal transfers contributed 38% to the provincial total revenue in 2005/06 compared to 40.2% in the previous fiscal year. Equalization payments were $276.6 million; Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST): $125.4 million. Total expenditures rose by 1.7% to reach $1,169.3 million.

Growth:
Real Growth Rate: 1.9% (2003); 2.0% (2006)

Labour Force:
2005 68,200
2006 68,600
2003 77,500
2002 76,300
2001 74,700
2007 69,300

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2003 11.1%
2002 12.1%
2001 11.2%
2005 10.8%
2006 11%

Industry:
Agriculture, tourism, fishing, manufacturing. There has been an increase of 6.2% in employment since the 2001 Census in the goods-producing sector: The 2006 PEI Statistics: Agriculture - 3,900 jobs; firestry and fishing - 2,400 jobs; utilities - 300 jobs; construction - 5,700 jobs; and manufacturing - 6,600 jobs. The 2006 manufacturing shipments were $1,349,400 mainly due to fish processing and fabricated metal manufacturing. In 2007,1,900 jobs were created in the trade,accommodation and food, manufacturing,transportation and warehousing, and health,education and public administration services. The loss of 1,200 jobs in the other sectors of the economy accounted for the total gain of 700 jobs. The average unemployment rate fell from 11.0 per cent in 2006 to 10.3 per cent in 2007, the lowest unemployment rate for PEI since 1978. The labour force participation rate declined slightly from 68.7 per cent in 2006 to 68.2 per cent in 2007.

Niche Industry:
cultural tourism, education

Tourism:
Total tourist visitations 2006: 1,38 million. Total tourist expeditures: $334,100,000.

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Imports and Exports:

2005 total value of export goods $772.8 million. 2006 exports $786 million.

Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports:
Main Exports:


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:
Charlottetown Airport is owned by Transport Canada and operated, under long-term lease, by not-for-profit Charlottetown Airport Authority. Has two runways. The primary runway is 2,134 m (7000 ft), while the secondary is 1,524 m (5,000 ft). Air Canada and its regional subsidiary, Air Canada Jazz, operate numerous daily flights to Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax. Westjet and other carriers operate multiple flights to Toronto throughout the week. Prince Edward Air operates 12 aircraft, focussing on air cargo and chartered passenger flights. Summerside Airport is run by the private Slemon Park Corporation. It has no scheduled commercial traffic, but features a 2,438 m (8,000 ft) runway. It is the centrepiece of Prince Edward Island’s aerospace industry.

Number of Main Ports:
Northumberland Ferries Limited operates car ferry between Wood Islands, PEI, and Caribou, Nova Scotia between May and December. Magdalen Islands Car Ferry operates between Souris, PEI and Magdalen Islands, Quebec. Four major shipping ports are operational on Prince Edward Island: Charlottetown, Georgetown, Souris, and Summerside. The Charlottetown port is a fast-growing cruise ship destination, with 28 cruise ships, carrying over 23,000 visitors, landing in 2004.

Internal:

Air
Prince Edward Air - Business charter 7 day/week nationwide service.

Road:
The 12.9 km (9 mi) Confederation Bridge connects Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island with Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. It is privately owned and operated by Strait Crossing Ltd. Privately operated bus line provides transportation off-Island, as do various shuttles. Limited city transit bus route operational between 9:30 AM and 1:50 PM. Taxis and tour buses available. 5,440 km (3,380 mi) of roads on the Island; 91,636 vehicles registered (2003).

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:

Energy Policy:
Adopted Renewable Portfolio Standard that requires 15% of electricity from on-Island renewable resources by 2010. Promoting wind-hydrogen and biodiesel technology development.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)

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Official Currency:
Canadian dollar (CD)

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Foreign currencies can be exchanged at the Island’s various financial institutions. Currency from the United States is widely accepted by the province’s businesses, although there is no consistency to the exchange rate offered.

Financial Services:
Well developed Canadian banking system, which is interwoven into the international banking scene. Features a strong community Credit Union movement. Insurance firms, both local and international, may be found throughout the province. Prince Edward Island is open to foreign investment.

Communications/E-Commerce:
Communications on Prince Edward Island are open to the outside world. The provincial government maintains an impressive web presence, with information readily available. Private sphere also maintains a strong presence. As of 2002, 39.7 % of Island households were connected to the internet.

Public Ownership:
The province operates a number of Crown Corporations, including the Island Waste Management Corporation, and the Prince Edward Island Liquor Control Commission.

Prince Edward Island has Canada's highest provincial retail sales tax rate, currently (2008) established at 10%. The tax is applied to almost all goods and services except some clothing, food and home heating fuel. The tax is also applied to the Federal Goods and Services Tax.

Land Use:
Freehold – private land, ownership transferable. Limits are placed on the ownership of Island land, according to the Prince Edward Island Lands Protection Act (see Important Legislation). Prince Edward Island National Park, which spans 40 km from Cavendish to Dalvay, and another 6 km along the Greenwich Peninsula.

As a legacy of the Islanders' colonial history, the provincial government enforces extremely strict rules for non-resident land ownership. Residents and corporations are limited to maximum holdings of 400 and 1200 hectares (4 and 12 km²) respectively. There are also restrictions on non-resident ownership of shorelines. Recreational properties, the majority of which are owned by non-residents, incur higher property taxation. There are 29 provincially owned and operated parks: 16 day parks and 13 camping parks. The not-for-profit, non-governmental Island Nature Trust owns or leases 2,663.10 acres (2001) of land that it manages in a sustainable manner. The total area of farms in 2007 is 2,509 sq. km. (619,885 acres). The farm population (2001 census): 6,055.

Agriculture/Forestry:
The Island landscape is dominated by agriculture. A variety of crops, dominated by the potato, are grown, while livestock are also raised in abundance. These products are exported, while a variety of crops that cannot be raised in the province’s climate, such as oranges and bananas, are imported from throughout the world.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Prince Edward Island’s coastal waters fall under federal jurisdiction. Total shipments from 2002 to 2007 of processed fish products is up 3.5 per cent.

Marine Life:

Critical Issues:
High unemployment; soil erosion, estuary siltation and groundwater impacts from intensive cultivation.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Charlottetown. Three counties: Prince (capital Summerside); Queens (capital Charlottetown) and Kings (capital Georgetown).

Political System:
Parliamentary democracy. Island Government: Provincial powers are outlined in Section 92 of the British North America Act, 1867. These include direct taxation within the province, establishment and management of hospitals, asylums, and charities, the administration of licences for shops, saloons, and auctioneers, property and civil rights within the province, and the administration of justice within the province. Prince Edward Island is governed by a unicameral parliament, the 27 seat Legislative Assembly. The Assembly debates public issues, enacts legislation, approves government financial proposals, and holds government accountable. As part of the British Commonwealth, the monarch is represented in the province’s legislature by the Lieutenant Governor. The Lieutenant Governor’s responsibilities include summoning, proroguing, and dissolving the legislature. Also reads the Speech from the Throne that opens each Session of Parliament, and ensures that the post of the Premier always occupied. Is appointed by Governor General on advice of Prime Minister. The Executive Council, or Cabinet, is the executive branch of government. It handles policy and direction. Ministers appointed by Lieutenant Governor on advice of President of the Executive Council, which is the Premier (also known as the First Minister). Ministers are usually, but not always, designated as head of a specific governmental department. Speaker is selected by secret ballot from within provincial legislature. All members eligible, except for Premier, his Executive Council, and leaders of opposition parties. Duty is, in a non-partisan manner, to oversee conduct of parliamentary business. The Premier is the chief minister of the provincial government, and as such dominates the policy direction and activities of the government. The Premier attains office by being party leader of the majority party in the provincial legislature, or, theoretically should a majority not emerge from an election, the leader of the bloc with the most seats. The position of party leader is selected in a party leadership contest. The Premier is responsible for selecting the provincial cabinet, and its members ultimately owe their allegiance to the Premier, as s/he may remove them from their post at any time. The Premier wields additional leverage as the constitutional powers of the Lieutenant Governor are ordinarily exercised on the advice of the Premier. Canada: Federal powers are outlined in Section 91 of the British North America Act, 1867. These include power over the public debt, regulation of trade and commerce, postal service, national defence, shipping and navigation, currency, banking, Native affairs, immigration, and criminal law. Federal affairs are governed by the bicameral parliament. The first, and most powerful, legislature, the House of Commons, features 308 seats, elected by popular vote. 4 of these seats are contested on Prince Edward Island. It tends to be dominated by the Cabinet, which is the executive branch of government led by the Prime Minister. All money bills must originate in the House of Commons. The second legislature is the Senate. It is comprised of 105 seats, and its members are selected by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. Senate approval is required before a House of Commons bill can receive Royal Assent from the Governor General, although these latter stages, for the most part, are viewed as a rubber stamp. Prince Edward Island has 4 seats in the Senate. Court System: There are three levels of court on Prince Edward Island. The first is the Provincial Court of Prince Edward Island. It has 3 judges who hear criminal cases and offences against the federal and provincial legislation. The Provincial Court sits in Charlottetown, Summerside, and Georgetown. Provincial Court judges may also serve on the Youth Court, which has jurisdiction over young offenders. The third level of court is the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, which consists of two levels. The Trial Division consists of 5 judges, with or without jury, who sit in Charlottetown, Summerside, and Georgetown. The Trial Division handles pre-trial matters, as well as trials that are civil or family matters, estate or probate, or indictable criminal matters. The Trial Division also hears applications for judicial review from Provincial Court decisions. The second level is the Appeals Division, which only sits in Charlottetown, and consists of 3 judges. It hears appeals for indictable criminal trials from the Provincial Court, as well as appeals from the Trial Division. Appeals of decisions from the Appeals Division go to the Supreme Court of Canada. PEI provincial statistics 2007: Government: Last provincial election . . May 28, 2007 Next provincial election . . Oct. 3, 2011 Members of the Legislative Assembly: Liberal . . 23 Progressive Conservative . . 3 Members of Parliament: Liberal . 4 Senators: Liberal . . 3 Vacant . . 1

Political Parties:
Prince Edward Island is dominated by two provincial parties, the Progressive Conservatives and the Liberals. Although the New Democratic Party has contested each election since 1972, they have broken the stranglehold of what approximates a de facto two party system only once, in 1996. Elections: Statutory term is five years; however, term rarely extends this long as parliament may be dissolved at any point by the Lieutenant Governor on advice of Premier.

Important Legislation:
Prince Edward Island Lands Protection Act, 1982: Restricts individual land holdings to 1,000 acres, corporate holding to 2,000, unless exemption granted. Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission Act, 1991: Amalgamated Public Utilities Commission, Land Use Commission, and Office of the Director of Residential Rental Property (Rentalsman). IRAC is an arms length, independent tribunal that handles appeals on land use, property and revenue tax, and unsightly premises; administers land ownership legislation, regulates petroleum industry, automobile insurance rates, electric utilities and certain water and wastewater utilities. Environmental Protection Act, 25 May 1999: Created Island Waste Management Corporation, a provincial Crown Corporation that handles waste management. Focus on waste reduction through implementation of three-stream separation process, including waste, compost, and recyclables. The Charter: The relationship between Canada and its constituent provinces is outlined in the British North America Act, 1867. Section 91 lists the areas of federal jurisdiction, while Section 92 lists the areas of provincial jurisdiction. In 1982 the Canadian constitution was repatriated, and the British North America Act subsequently became a part of the new Constitution Act, 1982.

Principal Taxes:

Associated Power:
Canada

Citizenship:
Canadian

Paradiplomacy:
Treaties: International treaties are handled by the federal government.


HUMAN RESOURCES

Population (by year): 138,519 (2006); 137,781 (2003); 136,998 (2002); Population (by age): <15: 26,650; 15-64: 90,080; >64: 18,570; Population (by age 2006):<14: 24,029; 25-49: 46,929; 50-64: 27,753; 65+: 19,910. The median age of the population has risen from 24.8 years old in 1971 to 39.8 years in 2006. Furthermore, while 11% of the population was 65 years and older in 1971, this proportion has risen to 14.4% in 2006.

2006
Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Prince Edward Island 5,684 13,851 %

Population (July 1, 2007): 138,627 Population (July 1, 2006 census): 138,581. 2006 Census count (May 16, 2006): 135,851 Number of households (2001 Census): 50,795 Urban population (2006 Census): 61,721 Rural population (2006 Census):76,906 Farm population (2001 Census):6,055 Non-farm population (2001 Census): 129,239 Francophone population (2006 Census):5,665 Population density per km2: 24 Statistics Canada estimates that personal income for Prince Edward Island rose from $3,753 million in 2006 to $3,915 million in 2007, an increase of 4.3 per cent.

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2001 26650 0 0 0 18,570
2006 24029 19,898 46,929 27,753 19,910

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Migration:
Net Migration: 139 (2002); 7 (2001); -75 (2000) Inter-provincial net migration 2005/2005: -127: To PEI: 3,356; From PEI: 3,483. According to Statistics Canada Migration Division Net migration to PEI from outside Canada 2005/06: 343 persons. Inter-provincial mogration to PEI: 3,356. Migration from PEI to other provinces and territories: 3483. Net migration intra-Canada -127.
There were 695 immigrants in 2006/07 which is a new high for net international migration.

Crude Birth Rate:
2001 1.52%
2004 1.55%
2007 0.4%

Life Expedctancy:
Selected Vital Statistics (2004): Life expectancy at birth (in years): males 76.8 females 81.6 Number of births per 1,000 women (15-49 years) 1.55 Number of deaths per 1,000 Islanders 1.69

Crude Death Rate:
2001 0.86%
2004 1.69%
2007 1.7%

Ethnicity:
Primarily Scottish, Irish, English, French.

Class Division:

Languages:
English (124,915 speak as first language), French (5,565 speak as first language). 2,060 speak a non-official language as their first language. (1996) Canada is officially bilingual, with all federal services available in French and English.

Religion:
Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, United, Anglican, Baptist

Literacy:
 Approximately 30% of adults have low literacy skills, compared to 25% Canadian average.

Education System:
Community-based, privately-funded kindergarten provided, in which core funding supplied by Department of Education. Is optional, although 97 % of island children attended in recent year. Is attended by children year prior to first grade. Province will provide free education and transportation for children 6-20, with school attendance mandatory between 7 and 16. The Department of Education operates 64 schools in the province: 24 elementary (grades 1-6), 21 consolidated (1-8 or 1-9) and 1 “consolidated” (5-8), 8 intermediate, 9 high school, 1 intermediate senior high (7-12), as well as 5 schools within the French School Board. Four private schools operate in the province, in accordance with rules outlined in the province’s School Act. Funding provided by the province for the University of Prince Edward Island and Holland College. Numerous private training schools operate on the Island, providing vocational training. These schools are regulated by the provincial Private Training Schools Acts.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv
24
22
8
15
4
1
1
4

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
2006
0
9,590
11,972
1,946
3,334


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Statistics (2006/2007) University of Prince Edward Island: Full time students: 3,334; part time students: 741; summer students: 1,420; Veterinary medicine: 237; Master of Science Program: 49; Ph.D. Program: 29. Statistics (2003/2004) Holland College: Full time students: 1946; part time students: 172; Adult Education program: fuull time: 581; part time: 352. Continuing Education: 3425.

Medical Services:
There are 8 hospitals, including the 100-bed Hillsborough Hospital for psychiatric patients. There are also 19 medical clinics, staffed general practitioners, located across the province. Canadian health care is administered by provinces according to the Canada Health Act. It dictates that health care must be publicly administered, comprehensive, universally available, portable and accessible to all Canadian residents. It also contains provisions to discourage extra-billing and user charges for insured health services.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Prince Edward Island has been linked to agriculture since its initial occupation by Europeans in the 1700s. The initial Europeans settlers, the French, designated the island as the breadbasket of New France, a role it never fulfilled. Following the British seizure of the former New France possessions after the fall of the fortress at Louisbourg in 1758, the island (known as St. John’s Island until

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
The island's cultural traditions of art, music and creative writing are all supported through the public education system. There is an annual arts festival, the Charlottetown Festival, hosted each year at the Confederation Centre of the Arts. The musical play Anne of Green Gables has run every year at the festival for more than four decades. An unofficial sequel, Anne & Gilbert, premiered in the Playhouse in Victoria-by-the-Sea in 2005. Elmer Blaney Harris founded an artist colony at Fortune Bridge and set his famous play Johnny Belinda on the island.

Sources:

30th Annual Statistical Review. Economics. Statistics and Federal Fiscal Revelations Division, Department of the Provincial Treasury, June 2004. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/30annualreview.pdf December 1, 2004. “About the Airport,” Charlottetown Airport Authority. Retrieved from http://www.flypei.com/about_airport/about_facts_stats.php December 2, 2004. “About the Commission,” The Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission. Retrieved from http://www.irac.pe.ca/aboutirac/ January 22, 2005. “Canada Health Act,” Health Canada. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/medicare/home.htm December 6, 2004. Canadian Global Almanac 2003. Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, 2002. “Centralized Composting Facility Opens Its Doors,” BioCycle, 02765055, March 2003, Vol. 44, Issue 3. Retrieved from database: Academic Search Elite, December 3, 2004. Changes to the Age of School Entry: Preparing Island Children to Succeed in School. Prince Edward Island Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/ed_ageofentryb.pdf?PHPSESSID=4f03ff7d4fb7e255d2cafbe57ad2d5ef December 3, 2004. Charlottetown, PEI. Transport Canada. Retrieved from http://www.tc.gc.ca/atl/marine/divestiture/chtwn.htm December 2, 2004. Confederation Bridge. Retrieved from http://www.confederationbridge.com/ December 2, 2004. Croken, Lowell, and Norma E. Palmer, eds. Prince Edward Island Historical Review of Provincial Election Results, 1900-26 February 2001. Elections Prince Edward Island. July 2001. “Cruise Ships,” Visit Charlottetown. Retrieved from http://www.visitcharlottetown.com/cruiseships/ December 6, 2004. Dyck, Rand. Provincial Politics in Canada. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1978. “Environmental Protection Act Island Waste Management Corporation,” Royal Gazette, 29 May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/royalgazette/pdf/19990529.pdf January 3, 2005. “Executive Council,” Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/ec/index.php3 December 2, 2004. “General Information,” Northumberland Ferries Limited. Retrieved from http://www.nfl-bay.com/english/nfl/info.html December 2, 2004. Georgetown, PEI. Transport Canada. Retrieved from http://www.tc.gc.ca/atl/marine/divestiture/georgetown.htm December 2, 2004. Island Nature Trust. Retrieved from http://www.peisland.com/nature/ December 6, 2004. Island Waste Management Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.iwmc.pe.ca/ December 6, 2004. Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.assembly.pe.ca/index.php December 2, 2004. “Lieutenant Governor,” Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/lg/about.php3 December 2, 2004. “Literacy Levels in PEI,” Prince Edward Island Literacy Alliance, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.pei.literacy.ca/levels/levels.pdf January 3, 2005. MacDonald, Edward. If You’re Stronghearted: Prince Edward Island in the Twentieth Century. Charlottetown: Prince Edward Island Museum and Heritage Foundation, 2000. MacKinnon, Frank. “Prince Edward Island: Big Engine, Little Body.” Martin Robin, ed., Canadian Provincial Politics: The Party Systems of the Ten Provinces, 2nd ed. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall Canada, 1978. MacKinnon, Frank. The Government of Prince Edward Island. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1951. MacKinnon, Wayne E. The Life of the Party: A History of the Liberal Party in Prince Edward Island. Summerside, PEI: Williams & Crue, 1973. “Medical Clinics,” Info PEI. Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/infopei/index.php3?number=506&lang=E December 6, 2004. “Motor vehicle registrations, by provinces and territories,” Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/trade14a.htm December 2, 2004. “Office of the Speaker,” Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.assembly.pe.ca/speaker/index.php December 2, 2004. Population by Mother Tongue, Showing Age Groups, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, 1996. Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.ca/english/census96/dec2/mother.htm December 1, 2004. Prince Edward Air. Retrieved from http://www.peair.com/ December 2, 2004. “Prince Edward Island Lands Protection Act,” Statutes of Prince Edward Island, Legislative Counsel Office. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/l-05.pdf December 21, 2004. Private Training Schools Act, Prince Edward Island Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/p-20_1.pdf December 3, 2004. “Prince Edward Island,” Human Rights Program. Canadian Heritage. Retrieved from http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/pdp-hrp/docs/crc/pe_e.cfm December 3, 2004. “Provincial Court,” Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/courts/provincial/about.php3?PHPSESSID=20cb820c6660bd0264704f9834f59c96 December 8, 2004. “Provincial Parks.” Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/visitorsguide/explore/parks/index.php3 December 6, 2004. “Quick Facts,” Info PEI. Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/infopei/Reference/Quick_Facts/ December 2, 2004. Robb, Andrew. “Third Party Experience on the Island.” Verner Smitheram, David Milne, and Satadal Dasgupta, eds. The Garden Transformed: Prince Edward Island, 1945-1980. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press, 1982: pp. 73-100. Souris, PEI. Transport Canada. Retrieved from http://www.tc.gc.ca/atl/marine/divestiture/souris.htm December 2, 2004. Summerside Airport. Slemon Park Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.slemonpark.com/departments/airport.cfm December 2, 2004. Summerside, PEI. Transport Canada. Retrieved from http://www.tc.gc.ca/atl/marine/divestiture/summerside.htm December 2, 2004. “Supreme Court,” Official Website of the Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved from http://www.gov.pe.ca/courts/supreme/index.php3?number=1003797&PHPSESSID=8fe24505c1ac2c365765223d080fd381 December 8, 2004. The British North America Act (BNA Act, 1867). Canadian Law Site. Retrieved from http://www.canadianlawsite.com/BritishNorthAmericanAct.htm December 2, 2004.

Prince Edward Island, Canada. Provincial Treasury. 34th Annual Statistcal Review. 2007. http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/pt_annualreview.pdf. Acquired: Sept. 9, 2008

Prince Edward Island Visitor Guide (2008)http://www.gov.pe.ca/visitorsguide/

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