Jurisdiction Project

Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

Overview:
Rapa Nui is one of the most isolated island communities in the world. The island, Isla da Pascua Province, Chile is situated in the Pacific Ocean over 3,700 kilometers west from mainland South America. The island is technically speaking, a single massive volcano rising over 10,000 feet from the Pacific Ocean floor. The settlement of the island by seafaring Polynesians about 1,500 years ago was accompanied by domesticated plants and animals. These people developed a culture and civilization on Rapa Nui over a period of hundreds of years, the civilization which flourished eventually collapsed before European explorers made first contact in 1722. Rapa Nui is an example of a civilization which exceeded the carrying capacity of the natural resource base allotted to its place on earth and suffered brutal treatment by colonial states. The island serves as a classic example of a metaphor for global economic development analysis. Since discovery and domination of Rapa Nui by a numerous colonial powers, recovery of the island has been slow.

Territory:
Rapa Nui was born of volcanic eruptions from three volcanoes; Rano Kau is the highest cone 1,674 feet above sea level. The island is technically speaking, a single massive volcano rising over 10,000 feet from the Pacific Ocean floor. Some offshore islands are made almost entirely of absidian a mineral used in spear making. There are no flowing streams on the island, water is collected from lakes or from wells, and the lakes are covered by thick layers of totora reeds.

Location:
Rapa Nui is one of the most isolated island communities in the world, situated in the Pacific Ocean over 3,700 kilometers east from mainland South America.

Latitude and Longitude:
27 degrees 9 minutes south 109 degrees 26 west

Time Zone:
GMT -6

Total Land Area:
16

EEZ:
3

Climate:
Rapa Nui is sub tropical and oceanic, with trade winds blowing from the east and southeast throughout much of the year. The annual mean temperature is 21 Celsius, with a variation between 8 in August and 31 in January. Annual precipitation ranges between 50 cm and 150 cm per year and arrives on predominantly Easterly and South easterly trade winds.

Natural Resources:
At the time of first settlement by Polynesian mariners, Rapa Nui was covered with endemic flora and fauna in woodland of palm trees and shrubs covered in grasses. The island has an excellent climate and good soil conditions for the cultivation of a wide variety of agricultural crops. There were many endemic species of flora and fauna before the introduction of species accompanying the settlement of Rapa Nui by Polynesians about 1,500 years ago. The rise of a significant culture, the ensuing cultural collapse, and colonization of the island by various colonial interests since then has denuded the island of it=s original forest cover. By 1500 the people of Rapa Nui had killed off every species of land bird on the island and over half of the island seabird species.

ECONOMY:

Total GDP:
2006 976,300,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
2004 4,910.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2000 16% 22% 62%

External Aid/Remittances:
The government of Chile spends $1.5 million USD per year here to help the local economy and maintain the local government. The government of Japan has recently cooperated with UNESCO in funding $670,000 for archeological preservation work.

Growth:
Economic growth in Chile has been steady in the last decade and economic growth on Rapa Nui is dependent on government interests. Economic growth has occurred more recently with infrastructure development in the stock of housing and public works with construction of public buildings. There is also the development of tourism facilities since the opening of the airport on the island in the 1970's. During the last decade, Chile has had one of the best socio-economic performances in the Latin America region. On average, GDP has grown at a rate of 6.3% in the last 10 year period, incomes rose in the ten year period to 2000 by 56%, unemployment has fallen to 7%, and there has been a marked decrease in poverty, from 45% in 1987 to 19% in 2003. Inflation had, in the eighties, exceeded 20%; inflation rates are now stable at a rate under 5%. Chile is a developing economy showing remarkable economic performance and progress with a slight balance of trade deficit. The industrial base has expanded in steel, petroleum refining, shipyards and manufacturing. The country is a world leader in copper exports and imports petroleum and natural gas. Macro economic management has been exemplary, policies have been rules based, and in credible settings. Modern Chile has inherited an infrastructure deficit in the telecommunications and transportation industries. The GNI per capita in Chile on a PPP basis is $ 11 537 (2004), this equates to $4,910 USD. Chile has one of the most unequal income distribution profiles of any Latin American country. The average income differential is over 5 times earnings in different areas of employment, and the mean income does not reflect this variation between high wage earners and low wage earners. Per capita income in Chile is on average at 30% of levels in the United States, or 40% of levels in the OECD.

Labour Force:

Unemployment
Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
1992 4.92%

Industry:
The economy of Rapa Nui is based on mix of agriculture, fishing, government services, transportation and tourism. Since the development of political stability in Chile in the 1990's there have been many changes and increasing development.

Niche Industry:
Rapa Nui has a unique place in global markets; the world trademark is the iconic moai statues. Remnant symbols of Easter Island's rise and fall and the modern story of the Rapa Nui people. A lot of art is produced and sold by residents replicating the form of the moai, and there is a large amount of literature and research into the lessons that can be learned from the Rapa Nui people. There are newspaper reports of consideration being given to building a prison on the island, Chile's penal system is notoriously overcrowded, and jails on the mainland routinely exceed 100% capacity on average, some more than others.

Tourism:
Annual visits to Rapa Nui average 6,800 visitors, mainly from Chile. Serving the tourism industry are 7 hotels and 37 residenciales, making up a total capacity of some 833 beds in 1997. One hotel has 130 rooms. Tourism to the island began in 1966 with the opening up of the airport, and has continued sporadically since then throughout the last 40 years. The attraction to the island has long been recognized by the formation of a park. In 1966 Easter Island Tourist National Park was created under the direction of the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1972 the National Forestry Corp was assigned management of the area and in 1976 drafted the first management plan. At this time some smaller islands off the coast were declared nature sanctuaries. In 1993 the park grew to 16,460 acres but demand by islanders for agricultural land created some give and take on acreage and the eventual protection of 17,600 acres in 1999. In 1996 there were 10,586 tourist arrivals, 47% were European, 12.5% were North American, 9% were Asians and the balance were from numerous origins. Since the beginning of the tourist industry, numerous proposals have been entertained by the government including resort casino developments. Tourism is viewed as a major source of employment and business activity for the future. Tourist accommodations range in cost from $60 to $120 per day. Overall tourism in Chile is growing. In 2003, a down year in the industry, overseas visits to Chile increased by 14%

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Imports and Exports:

The island is in a significant trade deficit position. Chile has very good trade relations with European Union, Japan, and China who are the largest importers of Chilean fish. Chile has export trade relations with the USA 14%, Japan 11.4%, China 9.9%, South Korea 5.5%, Netherlands 5.1%, Brazil 4.3%, Italy 4.1%, Mexico 4%. Overall Asia absorbs one third of Chile exports. The average import tariff is 8% on products entering the country.

Tot. Value of Imports 0.00 ()
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:)
Partners Outside EU:
Import Partners:
Tot. Value of Exports ()
To Eu:
Export Partners:
Partners Outside EU::
Export Partners:
Main Imports: Main inmports include petroleum products, food and household goods.
Main Exports: Exports industries in the past have included horse meat, pineapples, crayfish, beef and wool.


TRANSPORTATION/ACCESS

External:

Number of Airports:

Number of Main Ports:

Internal:

Air

Road:

Sea:

Other Forms of Transportation:

Economic Zones:
Easter Island adds a significant territory in relation to Chilean EEZ claims. The total exclusive economic zone of Chile is 3,150,739 square kilometers. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile signed a free trade agreement with China in November 2005.

Energy Policy:
Electricity is widely distributed by a semi-government company, SASIPA; electricity is created from diesel generators on the island and is expensive by world standards.

   
Type
 
Sector
Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Official Currency:
Chilean Peso

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 There is one bank, Banco del Estado de Chile, on the island which deals in Chilean Pesos and US dollars; there is limited access to credit card facilities at local business.

Financial Services:
There is limited access to employee pension plans in Chile, only 65% of employees have access to retirement savings plans, and the majority of unskilled laborers have no plan at all The IMF has suggested ways in which Chile could improve regulation of the insurance industry as well as improve the scope of capital investments that can be made by insurance companies.

Communications/E-Commerce:
Telephones, fax, internet, satellite TV are all available on the island. Internet use is increasing, rising to close to 20% of the population in 2004.

Public Ownership:
Most of the land on Rapa Nui is controlled by the Chilean government.

Land Use:
Land use is highly controlled in Rapa Nui, most of the land is controlled by the government of Chile, or an arm of the government like SASIPA for business purposes, and the balance of land titles transfers are subject to the definition of being born on Rapa Nui or descendant of someone born there. Land transfers and settlements are still a subject of reports from the island. 40% National Park now covers 17,600 acres 40% government ownership for forestry and beef grazing 20% private ownership, land cannot be sold to foreigners.

Agriculture/Forestry:
Rapa Nui has a climate and soil conditions suitable to the cultivation of a wide variety of plants, taro, sweet potato, sugar cane, bananas, maize, gourds, tomatoes, onions, grapes, figs, melons, beans. The few dozen people who arrived on the island from Polynesia brought with them pigs, dogs, chickens, bananas, sweet potato and breadfruit. Research has discovered that most of the agriculture took place on Poine Peninsula, an area now suffering from gully erosion. Soil erosion did not play a role on the island of the first 700 years of settlement, but agricultural land use gradually changed from agro-forestry to open land mono-culture, the result has been severe erosion of the natural soil base. Traditional land ownership patterns are strips which run from the sea up into the interior so that each land owner has a diversity of agricultural land types and growing conditions. The style of agriculture which developed after the deforestation of the island was dependant of stones being used as circular windbreaks around growing crops, to lessen the impact of wind, and stones being used as mulch to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the soil. Mono culture has not been as successful in the present when only 30% of food can be grown locally, as compared to traditional agriculture when a much larger population was self sustaining. Agriculture has brought about radical change in the vegetation mix of the island. Grazing by animals over the years since European contact has destroyed archeological sites and contributed to soil erosion. Farming practices have include sheep and cattle, cattle more recently, the sheep business was discontinued after reaching a peak population between 40,000 and 70,000 animals in the 1950's. All the land outside of Hangaroa village was given over to sheep production; it ceased in 1985. The government of Chile considers that there are 13.1 square kilometers of arable land on Rapa Nui available for agriculture.

Marine Activity:

Fishing:
Rapa Nui does not have a warm shallow, coral reef to support a supply of fish, the only option was to go to sea in large seaworthy canoes to harpoon larger fish like porpoise and tuna. Fish hooks and spears were made from stone. Rapa Nui is the only Polynesian island where rat bones outnumber fish bones in the excavation of archeological dump sites. Tuna are caught regularly on the seas off Rapa Nui shores as well as other minor fish species and sea urchins. Rapa Nui is a key island in the Exclusive Economic Zone claimed by Chile, The EEZ of Chile is 3,150,739 square kilometers.

Marine Life:
Eels of some size are caught in the cracks and crevices along the coastline along with flying fish, bonito, albacore, ray, dolphin, porpoise, shark, and swordfish. The coast is seasonally visited by marine reptiles such as hawksbill turtle, green turtle, and sea viper.

Critical Issues:
The most pressing need appears to be rights and freedom. The population was decimated by contact with European powers. The development of autonomy and responsible government is the most critical issue. Endemic flora, soil erosion and gullying, the loss by siltation and burial of archeologically important Moai statues and sites are high priority as well. As of 1996 there were no sewage treatment facilities on Rapa Nui.


JURISDICTIONAL RESOURCES

Capital:
Municipality of Hangaroa. Rapa Nui has very limited jurisdictional power, the municipal structure controls only a small portion of the island and provides a limited number of services like education and health care, representation in the legislative process in the governing country is not available.

Political System:
The government of Chile is the direct authority in foreign matters, policing, monetary affairs and all other matters of state. The Naval Authority is historically the administrative arm of the Chilean government on Rapa Nui. A three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Rapanui is part of the Province of Isla de Pascua, and includes the uninhabited island of Sala y Gomez. Isla de Pascua Province is in the V region of the country along with the city port which is the capital, Valparaiso. Rapa Nui has the status of a civil department, and a municipal constitution. Since 1984 the Governor of the island, who is responsible to Santiago has been an Islander, the current governor is Enrique Pakarati Ika. The township of Isla de Pascua is led by Pedro Pablo Edmunds Paoa who belongs to the PDC, the Christian Democrat Party. Free elections were first held in 1966, but the dictatorships of Allende and Pinochet interrupted the development of a democratic system of government. Elections are held every four years. The Senate is made up of 48 seats, 38 are elected half of those elected every four years, 9 members are appointed, including some former Presidents. The Chilean Chamber of Deputies has 120 seats and elections are held every four years, the deputies represent District 13, one is from RN, National Renewal, the other is from PPD, Party for Democracy. The district includes Isla de Pascua, Juan Fernandez, and a part of Valparaiso. There are no indigenous persons from Rapa Nui in the Chilean Chamber of Deputies or in the Senate.

Political Parties:
The political system is more stable now, with five political movements coalescing around the center left party Concertacion, and three parties forming the center right party, Union Por Chile. Union Por Chile has been known as Democracia y Progreso and Union for el Progreso in the past. The President of the republic is Ricardo Lagos Escobar, presidential elections by popular vote are for a four-year term; election last held 11 December 2005, with runoff election to be held 15 January 2006 (next to be held December 2009) Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Sergio DIEZ Urzia] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA Vasquez]); Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adolfo ZALDIVAR Larrain], Socialist Party or PS [Ricardo NUNEZ], Party for Democracy or PPD [Victor BARRUETO], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]

Important Legislation:
The Easter Island Law was passed by the Chilean government in 1966. Further legislative measures have been introduced since 1992 with the help of the United Nations movement to improve the conditions of indigenous person all over the world.

Principal Taxes:
There are no taxes on the Island; one of the consequences of this is that gasoline is cheaper on the Rapa Nui than on the mainland in Chile. There is an airport landing fee.

Associated Power:
Chile

Citizenship:
Residents of Rapa Nui are Chilean citizens.

Paradiplomacy:
Some international relations, formal and informal, have developed as a result of UNESCO involvement in the site, and the designation of the site as a World Heritage Site.


HUMAN RESOURCES

The population Structure of Chile is 0-14 years: 25.2% 15-64 years: 66.7% 65 years and over: 8%

2002
Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Rapa Nui (Easter Island) 164 3,791 %

Year Population: 300-800 AD 30 - 50 First settlement by sea-faring Polynesians 1300-1500 8,000-10,000 Population peak 1722 1,000– 2,500 First contact with Europeans 1862 3,500 1877 110 1982 1,886 1992 2,770 1997 3,314 2002 3,791

Population:
Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2002 25 0 0 0 8

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Migration:
The Slave trade ended up costing Rapa Nui thousands of residents through the 1800's, with all who left to work on South American plantations failing to return. Immigrants to Rapa Nui are predominantly Chilean; approximately 30% of residents on the island are temporary residents, civil servants and their families from Chile. The net migration rate for Chile is 0; however the majority of population increases in Rapa Nui are the result of immigration from mainland Chile.

Crude Birth Rate:
2003 15.4%
1991 22.4%

Life Expedctancy:
Life expectancy for Chile would indicate 77 years in 2003 Crude Death Rate: Population statistics for Chile would indicate the crude death rate is 5.76 in 2003; the mortality rate in 1992 was 5.6; however in the 1960’s it stood at double that, 12.5. The most important reason for this decrease is a decrease in infant mortality which was very high in the sixties at 119.5 per 1000 live births.

Crude Death Rate:
2003 5.76%
1992 5.6%
1960 12.5%

Ethnicity:
Indigenous Rapanui Native South American Spanish Spanish-Native-American (mestizo)

Class Division:
The indigenous people of the island were fenced into the main village of Hangaroa from 1887 until the 1960's and were not allowed to venture beyond the stone wall that was built around them. The eventual development of more freedom and autonomy has only occurred recently. Initial attempts at change in the sixties were thwarted by the repressive political situation which prevailed in Chile. Class divisions are clearly drawn along ethnic lines, traditionally Chileans were the ruling class, and Rapanui had few or no prospects or freedoms. Approximately 30 % of Island residents are temporary civil servants and their families. Land ownership by native born Rapanui has created a new division of income and stature in society. Chile has one of the largest disparities in income in the region, income inequality is high, and a skilled worker on average earns 5.3 times the income of a comparable unskilled worker. Class divisions are very evident in unequal income distribution throughout the economy. The social definition of who is a native has not depended so much on phenotypical characteristics as on cultural ones. This means that Chileans generally have considered someone to be a native only if, in addition to native American features, he or she has an indigenous last name, wears native clothing, speak a native language, or resides in a native community. Consequently, the indigenous people who wish to assimilate fully into Chilean society often take Spanish surnames after moving out of reservations. There have been no really salient racial distinctions affecting daily life and politics in Chile, but there is unquestionably a strong correlation between high socioeconomic status and light skin.

Languages:
Rapanui and Spanish

Religion:
The dominant religion on Rapa Nui is Roman Catholic; there are some non believers, Jehovah Witness, Evangelical, Mormons, and other unspecified religions. By 1868 the last survivors of the ancient culture converted to Christian beliefs. By 1990 there were 3,000 Catholics per priest. With about 760 parishes throughout the country, the church is unable to extend its presence to the entire Catholic population. Beginning in the 1840s, the Chilean government sponsored the immigration of German settlers to the southern Lake District. Most of them, contrary to the government's wishes, came from Protestant parts of Germany. As a result, the first Protestant services in Chile, mainly Anglican and Lutheran, began in immigrant communities. Initially, they were merely tolerated by the authorities, but in 1865 a new law interpreting the religious clause of the constitution that declared Roman Catholicism as the official state religion permitted private practice by non-Catholic denominations. Chile 1970 1992 Roman Catholic 90% 77% Protestant 6% 13% Other, Jewish, Muslim 4% Atheist or indifferent 3% 7%

Literacy:
 Literacy rates are very high in Chile. Rural areas of the country have slightly lower literacy rates as do indigenous peoples. Indications are that 62% of older persons are literate, while 98% of younger persons are literate in rural Chile. Rapa Nui school opened in the 1964 and literacy rates have improved dramatically since then.

Education System:
In 1956, the first school children were allowed off the island to study in Chile, one of the first group returned to the island as a school teacher in 1964. There are about 800 students in the island school system which reaches to ninth grade; in 1997 there were 653 children in the K - 7 grades. Rapanui Immersion education has just become available, with the first class starting in 2000. Post elementary education is not available on the island, anyone pursing further education does so on the mainland.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools
Universities:

 

Number of Schools per Island:
 
Pre-school
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University
 
Pub
Priv
1
2
3
Pub
Priv
Pub
Priv

 

Students Enrolled:
Year:
Pre-School
Elementary
High-school
Prof.
University


Teachers
Year
Pre-School
Elementary
High-School
Prof.
University
1
2
3


Medical Services:
There is one hospital with a medical doctor, a dentist, a midwife, and nursing and support staff with an ambulance. There is no pharmacy on the island. The standard of health on Rapa Nui is higher than the rest of Chile, a major difference being the lack of diseases like malaria, dengue, and cholera which are associated with South America and tropical climates. The government organizes an annual medical flight to Rapa Nui of up to 100 medical personnel and support staff to deal with all specialties, dealing with over 500 consultations and procedures at one time.


HISTORY AND CULTURE

History:
 Rapa Nui is a site of world importance, with archeological treasures left reminding the world of the Polynesian seafaring going immigrants probably from the Marquesas or Society Islands. These people settled on the island sometime in 200-300 AD. The ancient culture which developed reached a peak around 700 AD, continuing the erection of statues (maoi) until 1350. About 230 statues were actually moved from quarries, there are 394 statues still attached to the rock face at every stage of manufacture. Another 200 or more are left on the ancient road between the quarry and the coast. The statue cult seems to have been based on an ideology of male, lineage based authority incorporating anthromorphic symbolism. The statues were symbols of power and authority, both religious and political. After 1350 the structures started to fall into disrepair and disputes rose among the islanders probably resulting from famine, the island having been denuded of trees increasing the problems cause by drought conditions. By 1700 the population dropped to between one-quarter and one-tenth of its former number, and many statues were toppled in “clan wars”. Sacred rituals shifted after 1350 from erecting large standing moai to the annual bird man festival, a time when warriors plunge into the sea from the high cliffs at Orongo, to retrieve the first laid eggs of sooty tern nesting on off shore islands. First contact with western European cultures continued after first contact by the Dutch, Jacob Roggeveen landed with three ships on Easter Day 1722, and named it accordingly. For some reason, Roggeveen landed with 120 marines, became wary by the excited crowd, opened fire, and killed a number of residents. Some researchers suggest that the Papa Nui culture did not so much collapse as be destroyed by the intents and purposes of European slave traders who kidnapped the islanders, and the whalers and colonists who continued the deliberate destruction of the island environment. The Spanish claimed Rapa Nui in 1770, although the island still seemed to be without a protectorate. Whalers visited the island regularly in the 1820's and 1830's, and then Slavers visited in the 1860's with devastating effects, removing over 1,000 people in 1863 to Peruvian plantations and enterprises. Between December 1862 and March 1863 an estimated 1,000 to 1,400 people were captured and deported. The real consequences of this social devastation were the rape and murder of many natives and the introduction of smallpox and other diseases. The process of environmental degradation was completed in 1866 with the introduction of rabbits, sheep, pigs, horses and cattle. The last sightings of a standing moai statue were reported by a French naval vessel in 1832. French Catholic missionaries had a lot to do with the affairs of the island through the late 1860's, but by 1870 having proven to be brutal masters, they were driven from the island. The population reached the low level of only 110 persons at this time. Serious contact with the mainland country of Chile began in 1870, and in 1888 the chiefs on the island signed a Deed of Cession written in Spanish and Rapa Nui. The Chileans plotted against the islanders, eventually poisoning the last king, and herding the islanders into contained areas with no rights until 1966. Throughout this century, Chilean authorities forbade islanders to leave the Hangaroa area, a fence was erected around the settlement, and written permission was required to visit the rest of the island. After the escape of some political prisoners in the 1930's, movements of the island were more severely restricted. The camp was surrounded by a barbed wire enclosure with two gates and no one was allowed to pass through the gates without permission of the Chilean military leader. The gates were locked at 6 pm and by 1964 there were still 1,000 surviving Rapa Nui living in this situation. An Airport was built by the American Air Force in 1966, and scheduled weekly flight to the island began in 1970. The arrival of the air force base coincided with the development of democratic institutions on the island, the arrival of the vote, and the Easter Island Law. The Americans departed quickly, however, after the election of Salvador Allende Gossens in 1970, and the bloody coup in 1973 ended further freedom. A petition to the United Nations Committee on Decolonization precipitated the installation of the first Rapanui to be Governor of the Island in 1984. Continued community agitation finally brought about the creation of enduring democratic institutions by 1992, and the Rapa Nui control the local council now.

Referenda:

Recent Significant Events:
The return of democracy in Chile within the last decade. The introduction of Rapa Nui Immersion schooling for island children in 2000.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
Distinctive Rapanui customs include dancing, string finger story telling and water sports. Artisans also create sculptures and graphic arts replicating the World Heritage Site figures. Obsidian is abundant on Rapa Nui and its abundance is unique in the Polynesian culture. It was traditionally used for spear point making, and sculptures remnant of its past. Other ancient skills include making Amahute barkcloth, chipping obsidian to make stone tools, and shell necklace making. The annual Tapati Festival takes place in late January or early February, a fortnight of celebrations, complete with parade. There are activities varying from horse racing, wood carving, body decoration, spear fishing and string figures. There is also a holiday on September 9, the day that Rap Nui was annexed to Chile, Policaro Toro Day. El Museo Antropológico Padre Sebastián Englert, the archeological museum, has a major collection of artifacts.

Sources:

Boerma, David (2004), GIAHS Program Reviving the Manavai and other forms of traditional agricultural production in Easter Island (Rapa Nui) Chile George Frisen, Ph D. Dept of Anthropology University of Wyoming http://www.sacredsites.com/index.html Mieth, Andreas and Bork, Hans-Rudolph. (2005) Catena Journal 63 pages 244-260 History, origin and extent of soil erosion on Easter Island (Rapa Nui) McCall, Grant. (2003) Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol 14, issue 3 Rapa Nui Journal, V 19, Number 1, May 2005 Easter Island Foundation http://www.islandheritage.org 190 El Cerrito Plaza El Cerrito, California 94530 USA Ramirez, Jose Miguel Dentro del Centro de Estudios Rapa Nui Chilean Cultural Heritage Site University de Valparaiso, Chile www.nuestro.cl/eng/stories/tourism/rapanui3.htm Republic of Chile 2002 Census http://www.gobiernodechile.cl Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas Informe Economico Regional 2005 Quinta Region de Valparaiso, Chile http://www.ine.cl Reuveny, Rafael. Decker, Christopher. (2000) Ecological Economics 35 Pages 271-287 Easter Island: historical anecdote or warning for the future? Siavelis, Peter, M. (2002) Coalitions, Voters and Party System. Transformation in Post Authoritarian Chile United Nations ECLAC Statistical Yearbook (2004) Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean http://www.eclac.cl/estadisticas World Bank AMonitoring the socio-economic conditions of Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, And Uraguay@ Georgina Pizzolitto, December 2005 Chilean Embassy in Washington DC http://www.chile-usa.org/poins.htm Rapa Nui Tourism http://www.visitrapanui.cl/index.php?newlang=eng CIA World Fact Book http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ci.html UNICEF Chile at a glance http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/chile_statistics.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_Island

http://clermont.law.cornell.edu:8080/Chezadri/Chile/chile.htm

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