Jurisdiction Project

Zanzibar (Unjuga), Pemba, Mafia

Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia Islands are part of an archipelago of islands off the east African coast in the Indian Ocean. The islands of Unguja and Pemba are the main two islands which constitute the sub-national state of Zanzibar. The Island of Pemba has been ruled from Zanzibar by proxy for most of its history. Mafia Island is ruled directly by Tanzania. Together they are known as the Spice Islands.

Unguja is 85 km long and 39 km wide at its widest point. Zanzibar is surrounded by more than 29 islands, most uninhabited; Tumbatu and Uzi Islands are the only permanently inhabited islands in Zanzibar. Total area is 1,660 sq km. Pemba is 67 km long and 23 km wide at its widest point; it is 985 sq km. Mafia is located 20 km off the southern coast of Tanzania; it is 50 km long and 16 km wide. Mafia is 394 sq km and is one of four marine protected areas; the others are Mnemba, Chumbe, and Misali.

Located off the east coast of the United Republic of Tanzania, on the eastern edge of the African continental shelf bordering the Indian Ocean coastline.

Latitude and Longitude:
Zanzibar is located between 5 40' and 6 30' South, and 39 East. Pemba is located at 4 80' South between 39 35' and 39 50' East.

Time Zone:
GMT +3

Total Land Area:


Zanzibar climatic conditions are set up by the equatorial currents flowing across the Indian Ocean from the east. The tropical climate has average daily high temperatures which vary from 29 to 33 C, and average daily low temperatures varying from 22 to 25 C throughout the twelve months of the year. Pemba Island receives slightly more rainfall than Zanzibar Island.

Natural Resources:
Marine resources are based on the coral reef ecosystem and good agricultural conditions on land for the production of cotton, spices and other products; there are also new discoveries of offshore oil in the Songo Songo field.


Total GDP:
2006 12,120,000,000.00 USD

Per Capita GDP:
1980 410.00 USD
2000 220.00 USD
1996 153.00 USD
2006 700.00 USD

% of GDP per Sector:
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2002 45% 16% 39%

% of Population Employed by Sector
  Primary Secondary Tertiary
2002 70% % %
1999 % % %

External Aid/Remittances:
As a result of internal unrest in the political system, Zanzibar suffered an aid boycott by donor countries from 1995 to 2002, in particular the European Union. Total external debt in 2001 stood at $83.9 million US dollars. In 2002 the Peoples Republic of China forgave $25 million US dollars of debt, reducing total foreign debt to $59.4. Zanzibar is now participating with the United Republic of Tanzania, which guarantees its foreign debt, in the Highly Indebted Poor Counties Program for the forgiveness of more debt over the next 20 years. Zanzibar relies on heavily on foreign aid to stock medical supplies and equipment.

The tension that erupted in Zanzibar as a result of political instability led to a decline in development partners on the islands during the nineties and at the beginning of this century. GDP Growth (1996) 7.1%; (1998) .5%; (1999) 4.5%; (2000) 3.2%; (2001) 4.0%. Reform measures have been able to reverse the negative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rates characteristic of the Zanzibar economy during the 1980's. However real GDP growth has on average remained at below 5 per cent during the 1997-2002 periods. Inflation has been reduced from above 25 per cent in the mid 1980's to about 5.5 per cent in 2002. The Zanzibar economy is predominantly based in subsistence agriculture and fisheries. There is little agricultural processing. A market sector is developing because of the influence of foreign exchange earnings in agriculture (cloves) and tourism. Historically, Zanzibar has been a political power house of East Africa. Because of its political dominance, Zanzibar managed to build a strong economy. In those days, the name was decorated with many superlatives and history making achievements. Eg., it was the first in the region to have railways in 1879. The railways headed southwards from Zanzibar town to Chukwani and its two cars were initially pulled by mules. The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RGZ) initially closed doors for its citizens wishing to pursue trading opportunities to external world. It instead championed a move of launching a number of factories producing consumer goods such as shoes, cigarettes, soaps and oils, household items, sugar, perfumery and spirits.

Labour Force:
2005 19,220,000

Year: Unemployment Rate (% of pop.)
2006 67%
1982 60%

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy accounting on average for 70 per cent of employment and up to 38 per cent of the country's GDP. Tourism now employs approximately 30% of the work force in some areas. Poverty is both perverse and widespread. Data indicates that 61 per cent of Zanzibaris are without basic livelihood needs. Rural areas are hardest hit. Pemba is very poor with 64% of the residents on Pemba Island living in deprivation compared to 59% in Unguja. Unemployment: The government of Tanzania has its own definition of unemployment, the National Definition. This is because the Standard Definition does not adequately reflect the low level of productivity and marginal attachment to the labor force that a lot of its citizens have. Unemployment rates in 2001 vary throughout the country with the largest unemployed populations residing in cities. Dar es Salaam alone reports a 46% unemployment rate, urban areas report a 25% rate, and rural areas 8%. 2001 Standard Definition Unemployment Rate: 5.1% Tanzania; 2001 National Definition Unemployment Rate: 12.9%; Zanzibar specific unemployment rates do not seem to be published.

Niche Industry:
The production of cloves for the world market had been an exclusive niche industry for Zanzibar for many years; this has ended in the last ten years with the arrival of other suppliers on the world market. A recent survey by International Labor Organization indicated that child labor is common in Zanzibar and most widespread in the clove production industry. This may not be unusual considering the extremely high percentage of population under the age of 15, in some communities, approaching 50%. The development of the seaweed industry in the last two decades has significantly impacted rural poverty in Zanzibar. The Seaweed industry is dominated by women, who can work the intertidal zone on a subsistence basis. Exports from this industry have reached 32% of total exports in 1996. The population of the islands is spread around the coastline in small villages, so this new fishery has had a widespread impact.

Zanzibar was mostly closed to visitors for the period after the revolution of 1964 until few years ago. It was equally difficult for a Zanzibari to travel abroad. The country embarked on a path of tourism development in the nineteen eighties. The benefits of tourism to Zanzibar's economy are difficult to measure. There are conflicting arguments where some supporters often cite employment opportunities and higher prices for goods and services as a result of the demand created by the incoming tourists. Opponents view tourism industry as being the cause of cultural erosion in Zanzibar and the source of all evils. Prostitution, drugs and crimes have increased tremendously in the last two decades. Above all, opponents are of the opinion that Zanzibar does not directly benefit from tourism because most of the visitors pay directly to foreign agencies in their respective countries before beginning their journey to the spice island. Tourism visitors to Zanzibar 1984 8,967; 1995 56,415; 1999 86,925; 2000 97,165; 2004 92,161. Tourism has been encouraged since the mid eighties and has grown at a rate of 20% per year since then; to the year 2003, development includes 6,637 hotel beds in 175 hotels and guest houses. There is a conflict of cultures which becomes evident when sun-seeking tourists from Europe, clad in bikinis, are hosted in a predominantly Muslim population. Topless bathing, which may be promoted in travel brochures and catalogues, is in fact strictly prohibited in the Muslim society of the islands. Over one third of new hotels and guest houses have been built along a 100 kilometer stretch of coral coastline on the east of the island between Nungwi and Jambani. This area historically receives the least amount of rainfall in the country. The arrival of tourists coincides with the dry season, increasing competition for a limited fresh water resource. Few hotels have sewage treatment facilities, and discharge sewage directly into the sea, resulting in ground water contamination.


Imports and Exports:

Tanzania trades with more than 168 countries in Africa, Europe, America, Asia and Australia, and has trade relationship with regional economic bodies such as European Union (EU), East African Community (EAC), and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Zanzibar imports almost 80 percent of its basic requirements. Zanzibar imports the bulk of its requirements from mainland Tanzania and the Gulf States. For many years, the level of imports exceeds those of exports by more than 3 times. This creates a wide balance of trade deficit annually. In 1998 Zanzibar imported goods worth of US$ 91.40 millions rising to US$ 91.88 millions for 1999. Briefly, Zanzibar prospered in the past due to maritime trade involving slaves, spices, ivory and gold. These items were the glory of the past and no longer applicable to today's Zanzibar which now earns more than 70% of its export revenue from cloves.

Tot. Value of Imports 1,550,000,000.00 US (2006)
From Eu:
Import Partners (EU:) UK
Partners Outside EU: South Africa, Japan, Australia
Import Partners: Top import partners of Tanzania in 2000 were South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9%, UK 7%, Australia 6%, and included products like consumer goods, machinery, industrial raw materials and crude oil.
Tot. Value of Exports 2147483647 US (2006)
To Eu: Germany, UK
Export Partners: Top export partners of Tanzania in 2000 include UK 22%, India 15% , Germany 10%
Partners Outside EU:: India
Export Partners:
Main Imports: consumer goods, machinery, industrial raw materials and crude oil.
Main Exports: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton



Number of Airports: 125
Air transport is provided to Zanzibar by Oman Air, Gulf Air, Kenya Airways, and Air Tanzania using the two main airports of Unguja and Pemba.

Number of Main Ports: 11
Regular shipping and freight services are provided to and from Pemba and Unguja by a twice-weekly overnight service on the MV Serengeti. There are four ships providing regular service between the mainland port at Dar es Salaam and Unguja. Publicly-owned ships and private speed boats serve the ports of Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam, Pemba, Tanga, Mtwara and Mombasa. The government of Zanzibar controls the level of service to the neighboring island of Pemba.



Zanzibar has a total road network of 1,600 kilometres of roads of which 85% are tarmacked or semi-tarmacked. The remaining is earth road which is annually rehabilitated to make it passable throughout the year. The road system is reputed to be biased to urban areas.


Other Forms of Transportation:
Railways: total : 3,569 km (2001)

Economic Zones:
Monetary policy is determined by the government of Tanzania. Zanzibar has established two export production zones and tried to set up a financial services industry sector.

Energy Policy:
The energy sector in Zanzibar is constituted by electric power, petroleum and petroleum products supplemented by firewood and its products. Coal and gas are rarely used, both in domestic as well as for industrial use. Zanzibar gets 70 percent of its electric power needs from mainland Tanzania through a submarine cable and the rest, for Pemba is thermally generated. Between 70-75 percent of the electricity generated is domestically used while less than 20 percent is industrially used. Fuel wood and coal are used for cooking and kerosene is widely used as energy for lighting for most parts of rural and urban areas. The consumption capacity of petroleum, gas, oil, kerosene and IDO is annually increasing from a total of 5,650 tons in 1997 to more than 7,500 tons in 1999.

Year Total Energy Production (Mwh) Thermic (Mwh) Geothermic (Mwh) Other (Mwh) Total Energy Consumption (Mwh) Domestic (Mwh) Commercial (Mwh) Public Service (Mwh) Industry (Mwh) Public Lighting (Mwh)
2000 2,147,483,647 0 0 0 2,147,483,647 0 0 0 0 0


Official Currency:
Tanzania Shilling

Banking and Insurance:
Number of Banks and Credit Unions:
Number of Agricultural Credit Unions:
Number of Insurance Companies:

 Stock Exchange started in Dar es Salaam in 1998. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment, and bank services are available at The Peoples Bank of Tanzania, National Bank of Commerce, Federal Bank of The Middle East and Barclays Bank. Most business transactions are in cash as there are few credit card facilities available; Barclays are setting up the first Automated Banking Machines on Unguja Island.

Financial Services:
Western Union provides money transfer services.

There are a number of centers on the island where internet and secretarial services are available. Phone services are provided by cellular companies, Mobitel, Celtel, Zantel, and Vodacom. International calls are best routed through Zantel.

Public Ownership:
Zanzibar and the Spice Islands have had a history of unclear land tenure protocols. Many lands were held in common by rural village councils. Union with Tanzania brought government control over land use over top of the local traditions.

Land Use:
4% Arable land; 1% permanent crops; 95% other uses. There are many problems in the tenure of land in Zanzibar; the registry of deeds is incomplete; and tensions over ownership have impeded community development. Identified problems: insecure land tenure, uncontrolled urban development, initiation of investment projects without EIA, uncontrolled coastal development and shrinking biodiversity.

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy accounting on average for 70 per cent of employment and up to 38 per cent of the country's GDP. Agriculture plays a dominant role in the Tanzania economy: coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, cloves, sisal, cashew nuts, and maize are all produced in the country. Exports are dominated by cloves, which were first introduced in 1812 into a plantation economy. This industry is dominated by a large number of small holders, who farm principally for food crops. The west coast of Zanzibar is dominated by cultivated land while the east coast is mostly coral rock and covered in bushy vegetation. Pemba is the world's dominant grower of cloves, growing over 90% of the global supply of this spice, and 70% of Zanzibar’s total exports. The highest recorded harvest in recent years was 12,000 tons in 1996, and the lowest 254 tons in 1998. The volume of cloves was 5,600 tons in 2003 and 4,300 tons in 2004. Clove prices are volatile: 1980 price was $9,000 US Dollars per ton, and in 1995 the price had fallen to $600 per ton. Recently clove prices were $1,845.20 US Dollars per ton in 2003 and $2,372.80 US Dollars per ton in 2004. Pemba also produces lemon grass, eucalyptus, although sea weeds, chilies, copra and other crops are also important. Major food crops include rice, cassava, sweet potatoes, bananas, plantains, yams and coco yams. The staple food of Zanzibar is rice and due to high demand, much of it is imported. Up to 2000 acres of rice have been grown in the wet area of the island. Like cloves, agricultural production in Zanzibar is concentrated more on the deep soil areas whereas the coral rag is popular for root crops and other drought tolerant or seasonal crops. Fruits such as mangoes, pineapples, oranges, dorians, jackfruits, and many more are available but due to seasonal shortages and high demand, they are imported from the mainland. Vegetables are mostly imported from the mainland but a number of green leafy vegetables are produced locally. Production of livestock products to feed the local market in Zanzibar has increased markedly in recent years. With the exception of beef supplies for the Zanzibar urban market, production of milk, eggs and poultry meat almost meet the demand.

Marine Activity:

Fisheries is not a union issue in the United Republic of Tanzania, allowing the governments of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar to act autonomously when dealing with any fisheries issues. In Zanzibar, charges for vessel registration are made at a fixed rate, while licences vary with length and means of propulsion. Export royalty is charged on the basis of six percent of FOB value. The legal basis for charges is set out in the Fisheries Act of 1988, last modified in 2000. The act was also being re-written and was expected to be in force by early 2004. Revenues collected for the Zanzibar government (2002) totalled US$0.06 million, of which 73 percent was collected from royalties. Of export royalties, 84 percent was collected from the export of dried seaweed, produced by extensive small scale mariculture. Local revenue collection from the fishery is estimated to be US$0.22 million, more than 3.5 times that accruing to the Tanzania government. Total tax burden on the fishery is estimated as 2.5 percent of landed value. Carrageenan-growing algae were introduced in the early 1990's into a fishery that was well-established as a subsistence small boat and net-based fleet. There were 26,000 full time fishermen in 1996. The small boat fishery produced 20,000 tons of fish in 1998, and has declined to under 15,000 tons in 2000. The algae industry has had a positive effect on the fishery giving employment to mostly women.

Marine Life:
Some protection of marine life is now afforded by the creation of the Mafia Island Marine Park in 1995. It is one of the few remaining coral reef complexes left intact on the east coast of Tanzania. This coral is home to Green and Hawksbill sea turtles, rare dugong (sea cows), dolphins, sharks, marlin, sailfish, tuna, red snapper, barracuda, kingfish, shrimp, sea horse, and squid.

Critical Issues:
The demographic crisis on the islands has many implications. There is a looming population boom of HIV/AIDS orphans, in a population already dominated by children under the age of 15, approaching 50% in most communities. Water quality and sewage treatment are becoming an urgent priority; 53% of the population uses water from unprotected sources; 50% of the population do not use a latrine while only 19% of the population is connected to a sewage system. In most urban areas, 90% of residents have pit latrines. Salt water intrusion in coastal areas is more common. Water uses by tourists and facilities average 658 liters per day per tourist; locals traditionally use 40 liters of water per day. The political divide between the islands of Unguja and Pemba is deep. The ruling CCM Party dominates the Zanzibar political scene from its base on Unguja Island. The predominantly Muslim population on Pemba Island elects opposition party members from the CUF Party, and there is no representation in the Zanzibar Cabinet from the island of Pemba.


Unguja: Unguja Mjini (Zanzibar Town) the historic Stone Town, became a world heritage site in 2000 because it is a fine example of a Swahili trading town typical of the east coast of Africa and because it is a material manifestation of cultural fusion and harmonization. For over 1000 years, cultures from Africa, the Arab region,India and Europe have homogenized into its unique cultural fabric. Zanzibar has great symbolic importance in the suppression of slavery. Pemba: Chake Chake is the administrative centre of Pemba Island. Mafia: Kilindoni is the administration centre of Mafia; Kilindoni is on Chole Island.

Political System:
Zanzibar is an autonomous part of the United Republic of Tanzania (URT). It has its own government catering for matters not part of the union agreement of 1964. The House of Representatives or as known in Swahili, Baraza la Wawakilishi (BLW), consisting of elected members from constituencies throughout the archipelago is the sole law making organ. However, the power is in the hands of the President who, under the current constitution, is also a member of the United Republic of Tanzania Cabinet. Zanzibar does send members of parliament to Tanzania and has a disproportionate influence on affairs there as it has 25% of the Union MPs and 40% of Committee positions in the much larger territory. Since the early sixties, Zanzibar has had a one-party political system. The elections held in 1995, 2000, and 2005 have all had more than one party running for election, however election rigging and violence have marred these elections. Commonwealth observers have declared the results not representative. Protesting demonstrators from the CUF were shot as recently as 2001, when 29 people died as a result of violent political clashes over electoral fraud issues. The Government of Tanzania is responsible for monetary policy, citizenship, foreign relations, and defense. The government of Zanzibar is semi-autonomous with its own President, Legislature, and Judiciary with control over many facets of local services, and development of the economy. The government of Pemba Island is controlled by Zanzibar. Mafia is part of the Coastal Province of the Republic of Tanzania.

Political Parties:
The political party, Chami Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) has been in power in Tanzania and Zanzibar since its formation in 1977. This is the one-party system that for many years promoted western style development in the country. CCM dominates Unguja and holds all but one of the elected seats; it is the party with the strongest African heritage. The Civic United Front (CUF) is the opposition party which has as its power base the Island of Pemba. CUF was formed in 1992 and is focused on an ideology of enrichment which rejects some of the negatives of western style development. The Muslim religion plays a role in policy development for the party, and it controls 90% of the Island of Pemba's electoral seats. This is the political party with the strong Arab heritage.

Important Legislation:
1977 Union Act with Tanzania; 1986 Tourism Investment Act; 1989 Investment Protection Act. Zanzibar is self-governing in many aspects of its life. The Union Agreement for instance does not cover health care or the fisheries, leaving the island free to set its tax and development policies.

Principal Taxes:
Zanzibar has a Value Added Tax (VAT) of 20%. The country offers a tax holiday for firms wishing to set up export business, if 80% of their production is exported; they get a tax holiday for ten years. The country has a narrow tax base, however, dependent on the agriculture industry as it is, and the administration of the tax regime is problematic with a high incidence of tax evasion. Hotels and guest houses are charged a monthly fee for water; the use of the water is not tied to the cost, and there is no metering.

Associated Power:
United Republic of Tanzania


Many countries operate consulates in Zanzibar, including Egypt, China, India, Mozambique, Oman, Germany, United Kingdom, and Italy.


Population is growing at a rate of 3% per year. Zanzibar Total (1967) 354,815; (1978) 476,111; (1998) 640,749; (2000) 907,400; (2002) 984,625. Pemba (included in total Zanzibar) (1967) 164,321; (1978) 205,304; (1998) 265,039; (2002) 362,166. Mafia (1998) 33,000; (2002) 40,000.

Island Area (km sq.) Population % of Total Population
Zanzibar 1,660 984,625 %
Pemba 985 362,166 %
Mafia 394 40,000 %

Age of Population: 0 -14 years (Zanzibar 41%)(Pemba 48%); 15 - 24 (Zanzibar 21%)(Pemba 20%); 25 - 49 (Zanzibar 30%)(Pemba 23%); 50 - 64 (Zanzibar 5%) (Pemba 6%); 65 + (Zanzibar and Pemba 3%).

Year Resident Population

Age of Population: 0-14 15-24 25-49 50-64 65 and up
2002 41 21 30 5 3


There has been significant immigration in the last number of years surrounding the growth of the tourism industry which is attracting workers from mainland Tanzania. Throughout the centuries the islands have received immigrants from many continents and it is one of the most diverse cultures in the world.

Crude Birth Rate:
2002 6.3%

Life Expedctancy:
Crude Birth Rate: Zanzibar reports fertility rates have declined from 1988 at 6.5 children to 6.3 children in 2002. The World Health Organization reports the fertility rate at 5.6 births per woman in 2000. It should be noted that high child mortality and morbidity is a major problem in the country. One in seven children dies before age 5. Infant mortality is 85 per 1000 births. Life Expectancy: Zanzibar has high rates of malnutrition. About 35 per cent of children under the age of 5 are stunted. Pemba has the worst record of all aspects of malnutrition. WHO reports for Zanzibar (1999) 44.4 years for men; 45.6 years for women; Zanzibar reports (2002) 48 years; Tanzania reports (2002) 51 years for men; 53 years for women. Crude Death Rate: (1988) Tanzania: 15 deaths per 1000; (2002) Tanzania: 16 deaths per 1000.

Crude Death Rate:
2002 16%
1988 15%

Zanzibar natives, Arabs, and Shirazi immigrants integrated through the years and emerged as three major ethnic groups. The Watumbata and Wahadimu who occupied Zanzibar Island, and the Wapemba who inhabit Pemba Island, collectively they are regarded as Shirazis, the indigenous people of Zanzibar. The 1948 census divided ethnic groups into categories of Shirazis, Arab, Indian, and other African tribes.

Class Division:

English, Swahili, and Arabic are spoken; English and Swahili are the official languages of the country.

Religion in Tanzania: Christian (45%), Muslim (35%), Indigenous Beliefs (20%); Religion in Zanzibar: Muslim (98%), Other (2%).

 Zanzibar education achievement is low, with high illiteracy rates and low net enrolment at basic and primary education levels. Compared to men, women are more disadvantaged: 60 per cent of illiterates are women, and girls have a lower net enrolment rate (66.7% compared to 67.3 for boys) Zanzibar reports 67% literacy for women and 71% literacy for men. Tanzania has a 67.8% literacy rate, higher in males, 79%, than in females, 57%.

Education System:
Education in the area is not widespread: statistics for Tanzania (2001) indicate that 26% of the population has had no schooling at all, 26% did not complete primary, 43% completed primary and only 5% had any post-secondary education.

Total Pre-schools:()
Total Primary Schools  
First Level:
Second Level:
Third Level:
Total Secondary Schools:
Total Professional Schools


Number of Schools per Island:


Students Enrolled:


Post-secondary education is offered on Unguja Island at Fidel Castro Secondary School; Karume Technical College; Lumumba Secondary School; Zanzibar College of Education located at Chukwani; Zanzibar University located at Tunguu, about 19 kilometres from Zanzibar town; The Nkrummah Teacher Training College; College of Health Sciences; College of Agriculture; College of Hotel and Tourism Management.

Medical Services:
Generally the health status of the islands is considered poor; the disease burden is made up of mostly preventable diseases like HIV/AIDS, the biggest threat, and malaria and tuberculosis. AIDS patients occupy 50% of the hospital beds on the island. Health expenditures are very low at $5.75 per capita, compared to $4,000 per capita in North America. Pemba Island has hospital services in Kkoana, and Chake Chake which, receives medical staff and support from China. Zanzibar depends heavily on foreign aid to pay for drugs and medical supplies. A large portion of hospital resources are devoted to treating intestinal disorders resulting from unclean water, up to two thirds of cases presenting. Prevalence of the HIV/AIDS in Zanzibar is estimated at below 6 per cent. There were 3 cases in 1980, and the WHO reports 2011 cases in 2001. About 87 per cent of the HIV/AIDS new cases occur in the 20-45 age groups and hence poses a major threat to the country's labor force. Data indicates that the urban district in Unguja is mostly affected with HIV/AIDS infections at 44 people per 10,000.


 For centuries, aided by the Monsoon trade winds, there have been trade links between the coast of East Africa and the people of Arabia, Persia, India and China. The dates are not known for certain but as early as the 1st century AD, Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia as well as other coastal settlements in East Africa had established trade links with its northern neighbours of the Indian Ocean. The arrival of Islam in the 8th century strengthened the relationship and brought East Africa much closer to Arabia. While the contacts with Arabia continued unabated for many centuries after the first arrival of Arabic settlers, things changed to a great extent upon the arrival of Persians (Iran) by the 10th century. They immediately established centres of control in Kilwa and Zanzibar, the latter emerging as a powerhouse of political rule in East Africa. Much of the build-up of social institutions and political organisations happened during this period where local rulers exerted control of some settlements along the coast. The process led to the formation of independent Muslim sultanates in Zanzibar and Kilwa with mixed Persian, Arab and African populations. The Portuguese had a period of domination and rule of the islands for about 150 years, taking from and ceding back to the Arab traders who have historically played such a large role in the history of the islands. The Portuguese arrived in 1498; they annexed the territory in 1515 and ruled until 1698. The 18th century was an era where Europeans were looking for colonies throughout the world and East Africa was not an exception. The Germans, who were first in colonizing Tanzania, agreed with the British to exchange Zanzibar with Heligoland and though the Sultan was still ruling, it was a de facto British colony. Zanzibar was thus ruled by two colonial masters at the same time, an event political scientists call unique in history. On the one hand there was Sultan and on the other the British colonial agents. Zanzibar of that time included the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Latham and surrounding islets and theoretically it included the coastal strip of Kenya. Mombasa and the coastal strip of Kenya were handed to the new independent government as late as 1963. During British rule of the islands, associations along ethnic lines were encouraged; these were the foundations of new political parties. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba had such long-standing traditions and independent strengths that, during the partition of Africa following the Berlin Conference of 1884, the ruling Sultan had a land claim based on the islands, as well as a coastal strip on mainland Africa. German interests purchased the mainland holding; British interest prevailed on the islands and it was declared a British protectorate in 1890. Ruled by Sultan Khalifa Harub until his death in 1960, Zanzibar was granted internal self rule by the British in 1963. Elections had been held in 1957 and 1961, but no clear winner had emerged; a deciding election was held again in 1961. The elections of 1961 resulted n a government being formed by ZNP and ZPPP, but strong opposition from ASP resulted in a revolution and the signing of the agreement to unite with Tanzania. Zanzibar was ruled then by a Marxist revolutionary government which confiscated private property and led a socialist government until the death of the President in 1972. Significant cultural practices include prayer many times per day; task-oriented rather than time-oriented perceptions of time; distinct rainy season and dry season practices and activities. The economic mainstay of the fisheries has been the intertidal area and small boat fishery, and in farming it has been the small land holding. A densely populated, interwoven culture and landscape, lively on the seashore. The population lives scattered in many small hamlets and villages around the coastline and in the agricultural zones on the islands. The coast is home to many traditional activities like fishing, mangrove cutting, lime burning and rope making.


Recent Significant Events:
Granted self rule by Great Britain in 1963; Union Agreement 1964; Unification with Tanzania in 1977; Irregularities in 1995, 2000, and 2005 elections; The aid boycott by the European Union began in 1995 and ended in 2002; Shooting of demonstrators in 2001; Election October 2005, the ruling CCM Party returned to power.

Music, Dance, Handicraft and Patrimony:
The strident laments and exultant overtures of Swahili taarab were born in Zanzibar, their rhythms and melodies carried and honed between Zanzibar and the Arabian Gulf until they became the sounds of the islands' own musical narrative.




Bank of Tanzania.Economic Indicators; Byrne, Peter. A Short History of Mafia Island; Ford, Neil. African Business, Nov 2004. London, UK; Gossling, Stefan. Tourism and Development in Tropical Islands, (2003). Edgar Elgar Publishing, UK; Gossling, Stefan. The consequences of tourism for sustainable water use on a tropical island, Zanzibar, Tanzania. (2001) Journal of Environmental Management 61, P 179-191; Gossling, Stefan. Human-Environmental Relations with Tourism. (2002) Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 29 no. 2 Pages 539-556; Government of Tanzania. Population and Housing Census 2002 www.tanzania.go.tz; Office of the President Labor Force Survey 2000/01 www.nbs.go.tz; National Bureau of Statistics; Globe and Mail. April 23, 2005. Zanzibar wants you.; International Labor Organization. Zanzibar Rapid Assessment 2001, http:/www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/36/544.html; Kivaisi, R.T. Installation and use of a 3 Kwp plant at Umbuji Village in Zanzibar. (2000) Renewable Energy 19, pages 457-472; Mohammed, S.M. Pollution Management in Zanzibar, the need for a new approach. (2002) Ocean and Coastal Management 45, Pages 301-311; Zanzibar Revolutionary Government, Commission for Tourism in Zanzibar; Zanzibar Revolutionary Government, Report on Economic and Financial Reforms, April 2003; University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar Country Analysis Economic Research Bureau; World Health Organization Country Cooperation Strategy (2002-2005) United Republic of Tanzania; World Trade Press http://www.worldtradepress.com/; Zanzinet;






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